Predecessors[ edit ] Before the devices existed that are now referred to as mobile phones or cell phones, there were some precursors. They were accused of fraud and the charge was then dropped, but they do not seem to have proceeded with production.
Inthe company Zugtelephonie AG was founded to supply train telephony equipment and, intelephone service in trains of the Deutsche Reichsbahn and the German mail service on the route between Hamburg and Berlin was approved and offered to first-class travelers.
Inthe English caricaturist Lewis Baumer published a cartoon in Punch magazine entitled "Forecasts for " in which he showed a man and a woman in London's Hyde Park each separately engaged in gambling and dating on wireless telephony equipment. Hand-held radio transceivers have been available since the s.
Mobile telephones for automobiles became available from some telephone companies in the s. Early devices were bulky, consumed high power, and the network supported only a few simultaneous conversations. Modern cellular networks allow automatic and pervasive use of mobile phones for voice and data communications. In the United States, engineers from Bell Labs began work on a system to allow mobile users to place and receive telephone calls from automobiles, leading to the inauguration of mobile service on 17 June in St.
A wide range of mostly incompatible mobile telephone services offered limited coverage area and only a few available channels in urban areas. The introduction of cellular technology, which allowed re-use of frequencies many times in small adjacent areas covered by relatively low powered transmitters, made widespread adoption of mobile telephones economically feasible.
In the USSR, Leonid Kupriyanovichan engineer from Moscow, in developed and presented a number of experimental pocket-sized communications radio. The weight of one model, presented inwas only 70 g and could fit on a palm.
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Solutions of this phone were based on a system developed by Leonid Kupriyanovich. One base station, connected to one telephone wire line, could serve up to 15 customers. From its start in St.
Mobile Telephone Service was a rarity with only 5, customers placing about 30, calls each week.
Calls were set up manually by an operator and the user had to depress a button on the handset to talk and release the button to listen. Because only three radio channels were available, only three customers in any given city could make mobile telephone calls at one time. The service was extended to London in and other major cities in IMTS used additional radio channels, allowing more simultaneous calls in a given geographic area, introduced customer dialing, eliminating manual call setup by an operator, and reduced the size and weight of the subscriber equipment.
In New York City, for example, 2, customers shared just 12 radio channels and typically had to wait 30 minutes to place a call. Some RCC systems were designed to allow customers of adjacent carriers to use their facilities, but equipment used by RCCs did not allow the equivalent of modern "roaming" because technical standards were not uniform. Roaming was not encouraged, in part, because there was no centralized industry billing database for RCCs. Signaling formats were not standardized.
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For example, some systems used two-tone sequential paging to alert a mobile of an incoming call. Other systems used DTMF.
Other vehicular equipment had telephone handsets and rotary dials or pushbutton pads, and operated full duplex like a conventional wired telephone. Manual operation was often a fallback for RCC roamers.
One major limitation was that you had to be less than feet closer with buildings from a base due to power limitations on a portable device. European mobile radio networks[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message In Europe, several mutually incompatible mobile radio services were developed. In Norway had a system called OLT which was manually controlled.
In July Readycall was introduced in London by Burndept after obtaining a special concession to break the Post Office monopoly to allow selective calling to mobiles of calls from the public telephone system.
A year later the service was extended to two other UK towns. In this was displaced by B-Netz which connected calls automatically.
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The cellular concept[ edit ] See also: Cellular network A multi-directional, cellular network antenna array " cell tower " In DecemberDouglas H.
Rae YoungBell Labs engineers, proposed hexagonal cells for mobile phones in vehicles. Two decades would pass before Richard H.
FrenkielJoel S. Engel and Philip T. Porter of Bell Labs expanded the early proposals into a much more detailed system plan.
It was Porter who first proposed that the cell towers use the now-familiar directional antennas to reduce interference and increase channel reuse see picture at right  Porter also invented the dial-then-send method used by all cell phones to reduce wasted channel time.
In all these early examples, a mobile phone had to stay within the coverage area serviced by one base station throughout the phone call, i. The concepts of frequency reuse and handoffas well as a number of other concepts that formed the basis of modern cell phone technology, were described in the late s, in papers by Frenkiel and Porter.
In Amos E. His patent contained an early description of the Bell Labs cellular concept, but as switching systems became faster, such a circuit became unnecessary and was never implemented in a system.
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A cellular telephone switching plan was described by Fluhr and Nussbaum in and a cellular telephone data signaling system was described in hipatitas by Hachenburg et al. Named MTA Mobiltelefonisystem Ait allowed calls to be made and received in the car using a rotary dial. The car phone could also be paged. Calls from the car were direct dial, whereas incoming calls required an operator to locate the nearest base station to the car.
Ericsson provided the switchboard while Svenska Radioaktiebolaget SRA and Marconi provided the telephones and base station equipment. This was a push-button telephoneand used transistors and DTMF signaling to improve its operational reliability.
Branchless banking and Contactless payment In many countries, mobile phones are used to provide mobile banking services, which may include the ability to transfer cash payments by secure SMS text message.
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Kenya's M-PESA mobile banking service, for example, allows customers of the mobile phone operator Safaricom to hold cash balances which are recorded on their SIM cards. Cash can be deposited or withdrawn from M-PESA accounts at Safaricom retail outlets located throughout the country and can be transferred electronically from person to person and used to pay bills to companies. Branchless banking has also been successful in South Africa and the Philippines.
Zidisha uses mobile banking for loan disbursements and repayments, transferring funds from lenders in the United States to borrowers in rural Africa who have mobile phones and can use the Internet.
Eventually, the idea spread and inthe Philippines launched the country's first commercial mobile payments systems with mobile operators Globe and Smart. Some mobile phones can make mobile payments via direct mobile billing schemes, or through contactless payments if the phone and the point of sale support near field communication NFC.
Cellphone surveillance and Mobile phone tracking Mobile phones are commonly used to collect location data.
While the phone is turned on, the geographical location of a mobile phone can be determined easily whether it is being used or not using a technique known as multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the mobile phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone. Both the SIM card and the handset can be tracked. They possess technology that enables them to activate the microphones in mobile phones remotely in order to listen to conversations which take place near the phone.
A sign in the U.
It is widely considered dangerous due to distracted driving. Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accidents.
In Marcha U. In Egypt, Israel, Japan, Portugal, and Singapore, both handheld and hands-free use of a mobile phone which uses a speakerphone is banned. In other countries, including the UK and France and in many U.
A simulation study at the University of Utah found a sixfold increase in distraction-related accidents when texting. This has introduced additional difficulties for law enforcement officials when attempting to distinguish one usage from another in drivers using their devices.
This is more apparent in countries which ban both handheld and hands-free usage, rather than those which ban handheld use only, as officials cannot easily tell which function of the mobile phone is being used simply by looking at the driver.
This can lead to drivers being stopped for using their device illegally for a phone call when, in fact, they were using the device legally, for example, when using the phone's incorporated controls for car stereo, GPS or satnav.