Atuatuca Tungrorum[ edit ] Tongeren Roman wall The Romans referred to Tongeren as Aduatuca Tungrorum or Atuatuca Tongrorum,  and it was the capital of the large Roman province of Civitas Tungroruman area which covered modern Belgian Limburgand at least parts of all the areas around it.
Before the Roman conquests, this area was inhabited by the group of Belgic tribes known as the Germani cisrhenani. Despite being known as the Germani, whether they spoke a Germanic language is debated, and the names of their tribes and their leaders were Celtic.
Specifically the Eburones were the largest of these tribes and the one living around Tongeren. Caesar referred to the fort of the Eburones as Aduatucaand this has led to a widely accepted proposal that this can be equated to Tongeren.
There are counter arguments that the word "Aduatuca" was probably a general word for a fort in this region, meaning that there might have been more places with the same name, and that Tongeren shows no signs of pre-Roman occupation, nor the hilly terrain described by Caesar. There was also a distinct tribe in the area known as the Aduatuci.
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If it is not Tongeren itself, the Aduatuca of the Eburones might be the ancient fortification of Caestert in nearby Riemst. They destroyed a legion that had demanded the right to winter among them in 54 BC.
Caesar reported that he sold the Aduatuci into slavery, and annihilated the name of the Eburones, many of whom however he reported having fled successfully, including Ambiorix the leader of the revolt. Instead of risking Roman lives to pursue them he invited tribes from over the Rhine, such as the Sigambri to come and plunder. This back-fired when Eburones pointed out to the Sigambri that the Romans had all the booty at Aduatuca, and were the more attractive target.
The Tungrinot mentioned by Caesar, came to dominate this area in the Roman era, and are the reason for the name of the modern name Tongeren. Tacitus says that Tungri was a new name for the original tribes who had previously been called the Germani.
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But many modern writers believe that the Gallo-Roman population of the area contained a significant amount of more recent Germanic immigrants from across the Rhine. Located on the important road linking Cologne to Bavay via the relay of Liberchiesand surrounded by the fertile lands of the Hesbaye region, Roman Tongeren quickly became one of the largest Gallo-Roman administrative and military towns in the first century.
It suffered from a destructive fire during the Batavian siege in 70 AD, which was part of the Batavian revolt. In the second century, it erected a defensive wall, portions of which can still be seen today. Typical Roman buildings were built in town, while villas and mound graves tumuli dotted the surrounding area.
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In the future emperor Julian met, in Tongeren, a delegation of Salian Franks who had recently settled in Toxandria the modern Campine regionto the north of Tongeren. They wanted peace but spoke "as if the ground they had seized were rightfully their own". Julian gave ambiguous replies and then after the meetings sent a surprise attack along the Maas river, and "they met him with entreaties rather than with resistance, he received the submission of them and their children". Zosimus reports that Julian used them as part of his forces in fights against other Germanic tribes.
In the meantime, the Franks to the north and east were pagan and so many areas had to be reconverted over the course of the following centuries, with several missionaries becoming martyrs. The seat of the Tungrian bishopric however eventually moved to nearby Maastrichtafter Saint Servatius was buried near the Roman town there.
This was the resting place of Saint Lambert of Maastrichtone of the last missionaries in the area, who died about AD. Tongeren therefore lost some importance during this period.
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Waves of Germanic settlers and invaders changed the area significantly. The Merovingian period between the fifth and the eighth century is not well documented.
It is an opportunity for us to reflect on the language and ideas that represented each year.
So, take a stroll down memory lane to remember all of our past Word of the Year selections. Change It wasn't trendyfunny, nor was it coined on Twitterbut we thought change told a real story about how our users defined Unlike inchange was no longer a campaign slogan. But, the term still held a lot of weight. Here's an excerpt from our Word of the Year announcement in The national debate can arguably be summarized by the question: In the past two years, has there been enough change?
Has there been too much? Meanwhile, many Americans continue to face change in their homes, bank accounts and jobs.
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Only time will tell if the latest wave of change Americans voted for in the midterm elections will result in a negative or positive outcome. Tergiversate This rare word was chosen to represent because it described so much of the world around us. Tergiversate means "to change repeatedly one's attitude or opinions with respect to a cause, subject, etc.
And so, we named tergiversate the Word of the Year.
Bluster In a year known for the Occupy movement and what became known as the Arab Spring, our lexicographers chose bluster as their Word of the Year for Here's an excerpt from our release that year that gives a pretty good explanation for our choice: