Many of the places are patrolled by the authorities, trespassers will be prosecuted. Magalia - Magalia Depot - This location used to be a train depot, but has been a restaurant since In the past owners have seen apparitions and heard voices through vents and banging on the walls. A former employee reports things fell off of shelves without explanation, their hair was pulled and their shoulder grabbed by an unseen force, they saw a floating head atop a freezer in the lower level bakery, one of the other coworkers entered the restroom and the faucet turned on by itself and the toilet flushed, while searching for the light switch on her first day working, the lights mysteriously turned on by themselves, while setting tables all the dinner forks had been turned on their sides, one night a woman working stepped inside the cooler and when she walked back out all the chairs had been pulled out from under the tables.
According to past stories from previous owners there are three ghosts. A small child, a woman in a housecoat a conductor. Malibu - Moonshadows Restaurant - In the women's restroom, the water faucets have been known to turn on by themselves.
Every morning, as was known by many lake residents, Margaret would swim out to the island. She did this early every morning. She has been sighted numerous times, after her passing, swimming seemingly along side a startled couple in a canoe. Her figure was just below the surface of the water in a bathing cap. Manteca - Cinema 10 - The last theater in the hall way on the left of the cinema is haunted by 2 ghosts, a young boy and an elderly man.
A fire broke out supposedly when the place was a drug store in the late 's, killing at least 3 people. Manteca - Home Depot - An apparition of a girl has been seen twice by employees working graveyard shift.
Some nights after closing, music and laughter has been heard. When workers go to check it out the music and voices stop. The details of the story behind the murder have been removed out of respect for the family. Manteca - Psycho home - There was a home that every one called it the Psycho home because the old lady that lived there was Psycho.
She had 13 dogs and 13 cats. If one cat dies then all the cats die's. Then after she killed them all she made a home for them. She kept all the body's. If someone came on her grass she would go get a died cat a scare you. Now if you walk in the home you hear the died dog's. Manteca - Sequoia elementary - Tthere have been may reports of children playing in the hallways.
A night janitors hear the intercom turn on and hear children talking on it but when they go to room 9 nothing is there. There has also been a report of swings swinging on there swinging by the gymnasium Marin - Camp Bothin - The camp used to be an old tuberculosis Hospital and an Indian residence before it was made into a girl scout camp. It is said that at night you can hear and see the ghost of a nurse pushing her cart down the hallways and patients who died there moaning and groaning.
It is also been said that Indian spirits have made appearances. Rumor has it that the man was murdered several years ago by a jealous lover. Menlo Park - Ravenswood - There is a woman in a trench coat, standing under an old-fashioned street lamp, that can be seen at night waiting for a ride.
But if you look back, she disappears along with the street lamp. Menlo Park - Coleman Mansion currently Peninsula private school - It is haunted by the ghost of the original owner's wife who was accidentally shot by her husband. Students and faculty have seen her in the "Big Building".
Merced - Applegate Skate Park - Reports of a headless skater appearing. The skater is said to have tried a trick and fallen on his head and he broke his neck Merced - Girl Scouts Island, Yosemite Lake - a lady and her daughter went out on a small boat ride while the other girl scouts were sleeping. The daughter had fallen into a whirlpool and the suction pulled the boat under leaving the mother behind.
After the mother died after grieving years, it is said she goes into the girls tents now and look for her daughter and sings to the girls and strokes there hair. People have said they have seen the women in the theater asking if they have seen "Johnny".
Merced - Yosemite Lake at the tower - The story is told that in the s at the boat tower. A mother had taken her two kids swimming and were jumping off the tower. The kids had drowned from hitting shallow waters.
The bodies were never found. Every night the mother would drive her car out there and would look for her kids. She had past away and still to this day you will see a car drive out there and see a woman in a long flowing gown with her arms out crying and calling her for her children. Milpitas - Ed Levin Park Cemetery - The cemetery is now closed, but even in the daytime, electronics will shut off, start on own, loud moans can be heard, flashes of lights and car problems.
Very cold in spots. Mission Hills - San Fernando Mission - Apparition of a lady in a white dress with a white scarf on her head praying at the front row of the chapel that vanishes. Also, a very horrible feeling of foreboding often comes with hearing these cries and screams.
It was a very frightening experience due to the fact that it was indeed broad daylight when this occurred. It is said that back in the 60's two parents killed their three children in the house. Also, as recently as the early 90's, an old Indian man died in the house alone while praying to a religious alter. This room, where the old man died is avoided by the current occupants due to cold and ominous feelings of dread.
The employees of the ambulance service have witnessed; doors and windows opening and closing at will, objects moving across the room, the shower turning off and on, the sound of voices and children playing in the house, the sound of footsteps, and recently while one employee showered she heard a voice yell "Get out!
The house is not hard to find, it's at the corner of McHenry and Granger right next door to a skateboard shop. Modesto - Dry Creek Running Trial - Joggers have claimed to see the figure of an Indian man when running near this creek. Some say that the spirit of the Indian is watching over the joggers who run the trail.
Others believe he is protecting the sacred land. There is also the spirit of a young man who haunts the bridge on Clause Road. It was reported that he jumped off the bridge into the shallow creek and died. Joggers have reported that while they are running in the early morning or late at night, they can hear a shallow yell or scream along with a splash. This bridge is at the intersection of Claus Road and Scenic Drive. It seems to be male and has a desire to make contact with the living.
After closing, he will activate battery operated toys that are sold in the store, open and close the locked bathroom door, turn the lights off and on and then off again, and most frightening of all, he speaks to the employees through the store sound system. When all trailer tapes have stopped running and the satellite TV display has been shut off, the ghost has been known to say things such as This scared both people so much that they didn't investigate until the next day. The boxes were stacked in a corner of the store that the security cameras had no coverage of, so their story to their co-workers the next day was not taken seriously.
The Blockbuster Video was demolished last year and is now a Fuddrucker's restaurant. In the early 's, a young boy broke his neck at the skate park and died from his injuries. This could be related to the "haunting" of the site. There are also reports of knocking noises heard in the main hallwaywhere the floor slopes by the sewing roomthat are coming from the tunnels that used to run under the school. Loud crashing of plates and trays has also been heard. According to an employee who has been with the hotel for 27 years a woman was killed in the kitchen by an enraged boyfriend.
There are also rumors of more than one person killing themselves in the kitchen. Also while on in the parking lot patrol security has heard the sound of breaking glass as near as two cars away-upon investigation there is no cause for the sound. Rooms, and are also all reported by guests and employees to be haunted. Especially in room where all the electrical equipment in the room turns on and off by itself. The room has been checked many times for electrical problems and none can be found.
Modesto - Vintage Faire Mall - 4 girls said to have been raped and murdered haunt a store in the mall. Anyway odor of fresh cigar smoke is still smelled in his upstairs room.
Owners always happy to give a tour. Monrovia - Azteca Building - Supposed noises are heard there, and an apparition of a lady in gray white not too clear, on that is said to haunt the place. This place is located on Foothill Blvd. Monrovia - Clifton Middle School - Band Room - its been known that a ghost walks the band room late at night while the chorus girls are getting ready.
Monrovia - Monrovia high school - janitors and teachers have said that during the night in the second floor of the main hallway you always feel like your being watched and it sounds like someone is sneaking up behind when you are alone. Montebello - AMC Montebello 10 Theatres - This theatre is haunted by a spirit who was stabbed and later died when the theatre first opened. Most of the activity occurs around theatres 8 and 9.
Theatre 9 is always eerily cold, even with the heaters on. Upstairs in the projection booth above 9, lights turned off by employees sometimes mysteriously come back on. It is also said you can see a figure's shadow when movies are on against the wall in theatre 6. Spanish soldiers have been seen walking around and sometimes follow passers-by.
Montebello - Cantwell High School - while working on the second floor of the main building for homecoming week. Montebello - DoubleTree Hotel -If you turn off the lights in the room before going to sleep, you may find the lights back on in the middle of the night when you wake up to use the restroom.
Montebello - Montebello Parks and Recreation Office - Anytime of the day or night, you can hear footsteps and voices coming from the hallways and men's restroom.
Many employees claim when they are working at the office late into the evening, they hear voices and footsteps, the problem is that they are the only ones at the office. Park Rangers have reported hearing voices coming from the men's restroom. The source of the haunting has not been determined, but two parks and recreation employees have passed away in the last 10 years.
The office was once home to a doctors office. Do not attempt to trespass, you will be arrested. It is said he drowned here looking for his gold buried near the river's beach. Mysterious fogs roll in and out here a lot as well. Montebello - Temple B'Nai Emet - The halls of this building are virtually covered by darkness for most of the time during services. Three children have been known to cross the hallways from one door to another that are completely adjacent to each other.
It was once said that three children were taken into a restroom stall by their father, and each were killed by slitting their throats because their father was extremely sorrowful over the death of his wife, and murdered his children to eliminate his memory of his love.
Monterey - California's first theater- originally built as a boarding house for whalers in the early 18th century, it was converted into a theater, the only theater in California long before we became a state. The Lady in Black is supposedly the proprietor of the establishment and haunts the nursery where her grandchildren died of cholera. She is mistaken as La Llarona. Each year the kids go on dares to walk the river past the bend. One year, the kid never came back.
One year the first girl ever to do it was actually helped by the ghost. She was walking too close to the edge when the ghost pushed her away. If she would have fallen it was a foot drop in about 2 feet of water. Moorpark - Gravity Hill - after the road dips down a small hill, if you stop and put your car in neutral at the bottom of the hill, your car will slowly drift backwards uphill!
It's supposedly because ghost of children killed there in a wagon accident are pushing your car. Moreno Valley - Nason Street - Years ago, a bus occupied with children supposedly broke down and was hit by a large diesel truck, pushing them over the freeway overpass. There were no survivors. It is now said that when a car visits this site, when shut off and put in neutral, the spirits of the deceased children will push the car UP over the overpass. This only works when going South. Sometimes laughter and footsteps can be heard late at night.
When the new hospital was built, the old one was turned into a small school for only the lower grades. The story goes that a deranged man came into the school with a gun where he took the students and teachers hostage.
In the back, there is 2 sheds, one big and one small. It is said that he took his hostages here and killed many of them and then turned the gun on himself. The old school is now closed and many have been inside since. Inside, people have said they see figures of children and hear the cries. Moreno Valley - Priest Hill - if you put your car in neutral on 'Priest Hill' the priest who had broke down on the road, he will push your car up the hill, with your foot not on the pedal. Morro Bay - Morro Bay High School - have been reports of strange occurrences in both the "old" gym and "new gym" lights turning on and off, cold spots, etc.
Morro Bay - Pirate Ship Playground - Reports of two boys playing on the pirate ship in the playground late at night.
Building used to be a speak- easy during the prohibition. A woman who worked at the establishment was married to a seaman, but had an affair with a piano player. When the husband returned from Alaska and found out, he then murdered her on the beach below.
The Blue Lady is a friendly and mischievous spirit. Mount Baldy - Ski Lifts - has a ghost of a man wearing all white. He seems to be from back in the mining days. He is wearing a white suit, with a white hat. He has a mustache as well. Montebello - Montebello high school - back in the late 80's a woman was hung in the c building.
Now if you walk by C building late at night it is said that you can hear a woman struggling. In the auditorium when the lights are turned off and you are by yourself you can hear people laughing at you and hear mysterious footsteps.
One is the old infirmary, which was built in the 's. When the base was still operated by the Navy, Security Police Officers would check the building at night and reported seeing a little girl dressed in old style clothing inside staring at them. Murrieta - French Valley - Boston Scientific Company - Witnesses report a ghost of a young girl around the office area between the cubicles. There are no kids allowed or anyone allowed in those spaces would have to officially check in the front office area.
Also, in the woman's restroom next to the lunchroom, people have sighted the faucet turning on and off on it's own. If you are there alone in the restroom, you can hear in the last stall someone unrolling the toilet paper. In the clean room, items coming out of the bio machine have been thrown straight across the room and you can also feel someone blowing in your ear. This has been boarded up due to vandalism. It is also belived this is turning into an urben legend.
There is no proof of any certain trauma at this this place. On some nights you can see a girl about yrs old sitting on the ledge of the middle top window wearing a light blue dress. If you look up at her a feeling of sadness comes over you and your eyes get a little teary. Murrieta - Murrieta Valley High school - Apparitions of kids and equipment moves. Napa - The Napa Cinadome - is said to be haunted by two ghosts that look like a couple.
There is one spat in the last theater room in the building that gets cold enough to shed ice aver your coke, when you sit there you also feel like someone is watching you Nevada City - The National Hotel - Apparent hauntings occur here. Built in the late 's the building was restored recently with the exception of the left wing. Lights flicker, cold spots and creepy feeling in this wing of the building.
The hotel has hosted miners and tourists who come looking for hauntings. Pierre was killed in the original Inn. When the Inn burned to the ground inor so, it was re-built in another location using the original blueprints. It seems Pierre moved with the Inn. Pierre's room is colder than the rest of the upstairs, the docents have opened the Inn in the morning to find the upstairs runner rugs rolled up, the books in the upstairs library stacked on the floor, the sound of someone walking upstairs can be heard downstairs when no one is on the upper level.
Several docents refuse to work upstairs; they feel like they are being stared at. A man has been seen several times looking out of an upstairs windows. There have been several reports of conversations with an older, oddly dressed man who vanishes when turned away from.
Newberry Springs - Mojave dry river bottom from Minneola Rd to Harvard Rd - The spirit of the "hatchet lady" is said to roam the river bottom at night with hatchet in hand.
It is said she is the cause for many people's disappearances when they walked near the river bottom at night Newark - Newpark Mall - In the TILT arcade doors won't unlock and appear to be stuck. At night when workers used to turn off all the games in the brake rooms there are two of them some of them would switch back on when turned off no one else was there to do so. One of the workers spent the night there after working late one night and heard a little girl screaming in his ear.
Always having the feeling of being watched when alone. Some of people that have been there say they have seen a little girl in the emergency exit door way and just disappears through it. Newark - Newpark Mall - Anchor Blue - There is a ghost in the stockroom; it used to harass one of the female employees.
It would push things over when she was in there alone. When in the office, we would hear loud crashes in the stock room, but when we would look on the camera, no one would be there. When in the stock room, you can hear the fitting room doors slamming shut when the area is empty. In the mornings, we would come in to hear the sensors beeping in the jean wall; we would dig through the piles, find the pair of jeans, and then turn the sensor off.
Later on, the beeping would start up again, but in a completely different place on the wall. At night, strange sounds are heard and flashes of light are seen under the water. Newport Beach - Coronado Apartments - An apartment on the first floor of the M building is haunted by the spirit of a woman.
Muffled voices are heard, phantom music emanating from the kitchen, lights turned on and off, cabinet doors opened, and she has appeared as a full apparition. Apparently there was a death in the apartment that could contribute to this, but the woman's apparel seems to be from a time predating the apartment complex's construction. The third boy left without telling anyone and the police found the other two boys a week later.
One can experience cold winds when the windows are shut and voice heard. Several maintenance workers, passers by, and Mrs. Wayne have seen the spirit if the actor walking the decks of his beloved yacht, or waving from the top deck. After she was thrown the 2nd car struck her. Miss Lowerey became the first person to ever be killed by an automobile in this area.
Many have seen a woman in white by the cemetery and near by areas, accompanied with strange lights. A paranormal researcher found there's quite an extensive collection of newspaper clippings that was donated to the library by a journalist. The clippings go back to the turn of the 20th century, so they cover the period when the "accident" happened.
According to the first journalist to report on the supposed haunting, about ten years after the date in the 's when the woman was popularly held to have died, there was no mention of anyone dying in an accident in the canyon, and county records of the time listed no account of the body of anyone who had supposedly died in Niles Canyon. There was, in the early 50's, a young man who dressed in a white sheet and jumped out in front of motorists near one of the bridges on Halloween.
He scared someone so bad that they immediately drove to the nearest phone and called the police, who arrived in force owing to the legend of the white witch and drew guns on what they thought was the ghost.
The young man was almost shot, though he was not arrested, but he had to be taken to a coffee shop where it took him until 2am to calm down sufficiently to go home. The supposed "white witch of Niles" actually follows the scenario of a common fake ghost story, that being the "hitchhiking ghost" story. The Niles ghost is most commonly said to hitchhike to one of the bridges in the area, where she disappears at the tollbooth.
There is no cemetery that they know of in Sunol, which is at the top of Niles Canyon Rd. Similarly; there is no Morrison Canyon ghost. Morrison Canyon road is a primarily one-lane road that leads up to the freeway. There's even a radar-testing facility up there somewhere, complete with life-size wire models of helicopters and planes, mostly upside down.
The church, the cemetery and the grounds are VERY active. Narth fork - the old church - built in the mid The town was once the stop for the Yosemite stagecoach. The church sets on a hill overlooking the town. At night you can see a light in the bell tower and the bell rings. This has been happening for so long the residents consider it normal. The only problem is the bell hasn't been in the church for years and it has never had electricity. It still continues to this day.
North Hills - James Monroe High School - Witnesses have heard loud footsteps and opening and closing of doors when the halls are lonely. The girls gym room is haunted students have heard lockers open and close when no one is present. Norwalk - Chavez Elementary School - Inside the main school, it is known that a former Principal and possibly a child haunts this school.
From balloons passing down the halls, door knobs attempting to turn by themselves, slamming doors, and a cry or screams of a child somewhere inside the hallways of the building. The alarms go off in the building for unknown reasons late at night. Norwalk - Metropolitan State Hospital - There have been sightings of ghosts in one of the occupied buildings.
A woman was seen walking threw a wall and another time was spotted standing by the shower room. Dark figures have been seen in office areas and noise comes from the kitchen when no one is in there. A mist was seen floating knee high down the hall then disappearing into thin air. This activity has happened between There has been talk of things prior to this but nothing spcific.
Norwalk - Norwalk high school - A boy in the 's at the age of 15 was working out by him self in the weight room when a bar fell on his on his head while bench pressingcrushing his head and bled to death he lied there on the floor till the janitor found him dead.
It is know that you could here him still working out at night. Oakland - Holmes Book Company - haunted by male ghost that throws books around. There is a ghost carriage haunting the road behind this residence hall as well as Mary Morse Hall. For more info go to http: Oakland - Mills College - Lisser Hall - Lisser Hall is the campus theater, and said to be haunted by someone walking from one end of the stage to another.
Oakland - Mills College - Mary Morse Hall - the ghost of a man in one of the rooms has been reported. There is a ghost carriage haunting the road behind this residence hall as well as Ethal Moore Hall. This house was home to California's Governor George Pardee Pictures showing orb's have been taken, but no naked eye sightings.
The rest of the park is also haunted with orb's having been photographed. There is only one gardener employed at the O. However, the Real gardener states that he never has to do any gardening behind the gates of the crematory because it is always weed free. Many employees have asked who the lady is weeding in the crematory, when their supervisors are approached with this question they simply state. Its is a ghost. We don't know why or how she came to garden at the crematory but are grateful that she does a wonderful upkeep of her area.
Oakland Hill - Jouquin Miller - There said to be a ghost that haunts the park at night. One foggy night, in the Oakland hills, a woman crossed the street and got hit by a truck. She died and her spirit did not rest. This very day, she haunts the park. Rumor is that the park made the spirit a hut and a model house. When it gets dark, people had reports that they had seen a ghost. Oceanside - El Camino High School - Sometimes the image of a student who hung himself on a tree by the building in is seen.
The land it sits on was originally the site of the Buena Vista Cemetery, and it seems that not all the spirits followed when the graves were moved.
Patrons and employees have constantly reported incidents. The stairwell to the bar area appears to be the home of a female spirit.
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There is a storage room above the lower dining area and entrance. The room is constantly locked and hardly used. But for some reason the spirits prefer this location when the restaurant gets busy. There are three windows up there, and although they can't be opened, people feel drawn to gaze at these windows.
Also from the second floor an apparition has been reported moving across the room from the fireplace in mid-air. Several people have heard there names called by both male and female voices. Like many other locations of hauntings, objects moving and power surges have been reported as well. The submitter of this haunted places reports seeing a face of a male form out of the chimney, ever so briefly, but it felt welcoming.
He patrolled this area in the 's, while working for the Oceanside Police Department. But the food is Great too. Ojai - Creek Road - There's 4 ghosts here that roam this road. One is a guy they call "Chairman" because he is burnt to a crisp. They say he stalks the road seeking revenge on who ever killed him. The 3rd is a woman hitch hiking down the road in her blood soaked wedding dress. No one knows who she is or why she was killed on her wedding day or why she hitch hikes this road.
Ojai - Ojai Valley Inn - Anyone that stays in room number 5 will hear banging in the closet, and a bad smell.
If you look real closely in one of the old mirrors you can see the ghost of a young girl, maybe six or seven years old. She is smiling at you and giggling. Also, in the underground portion of the store you can hear glass shattering and a woman's frustrated screams but when you go look to see what's going on, nobody's there and no glass has been shattered. Sightings of her occur after Where she hides behind trees, people say its because she wants to play Hide-and-seek with you.
Ontario - Chaffey High School - When in the auditorium the lights go on an off by themselves and if you are going under the auditorium in the old bomb shelters where props are kept a green light is following you.
It is said that it is a student who one night was in the auditorium on the stage and fell into the pit. Also up in the light room a girl haunts after committing suicide in the auditorium off the balcony.
Ontario - Field between airport and freeway - There is a tree that grew up in a big open field where the bodies of an airline crash were laid. The tree grew twisted and has a depth to it.
As you approach the tree you will hear the ruffling of thousands of crows on branches but you cannot see them. Ontario - Hotel Beverly - hearing foot steps on the 2nd floor when no one there. Ontario - Kmart on 4th st. Ontario - Vince's Spaghetti - When you are alone at night you will hear footsteps like someone else is in the restaurant.
Sometimes when your on the other side of the ice machine ice will fling over at you and no one is there. A ghost waitress was seen walking into the back of the new room.
Also there have been reports of hearing her talking to customers when no one was there. If you go into the restroom alone and sit in the middle stall the other doors on the stalls will open and close very rapidly. Also, if you are sitting in there someone will flush the toilets and turn on the water.
Like someone is washing their hands. Then you hear the door open when no one was there. In the banquet room if you are cleaning tables alone you can hear thumping and scratching coming from the roof. People have also been pushed in the kitchen by the lockers. Orange - Seal Beach - Boeing Co. Even Seal Beach Police Dept is aware of the ghosts.
Orange - Seal Beach - U. Anaheim landing was an early seaport circa At the turn of the century, it was the main beach for people to use, it had a boardwalk area for shopping, food and refreshments. Various different ghosts have been seen throughout the weapons station, blood chilling screams, and spine tingl ing moans have frightened many night time security personnel.
The location vibrates with history, and some hauntings are residual, other ghosts interact with the living. It is an area ,which should be investigated by parapsychologists, many people have died in car accidents on Pacific Coast Highway, which runs thru the beach area, or south end of the Naval Station. Orange County - Black Star Canyon - The site of multiple Indian massacres dating back to the time of Spanish occupation, Blackstar Canyon is home to many strange phenomena.
Indians said to have been spotted both roaming the ridges on horseback and walking the creek for a few steps before disappearing completely. Many night hikers report the feeling of being watched, and the sounds of an invisible presence pacing them shortly off the trail. Screams and howls haunt the night along with the faint chants of an age and people long past. If you are planning an expedition to Blackstar Canyon, travel in groups as it is a very dangerous place, and pay no mind to the homemade "Private Property" signs.
The Orange County Sheriffs Office has confirmed that all of the trail is in fact open to the public, and those signs were hung some time ago by squatters attempting to keep people off the lan d. Cox elementary school - past 9: Sometimes noises and lights are noticeable.
She usually rests in one place. People have witnessed a candle burning at all hours of the night, even when the wind picks up. The candle flame appears to change color and shape, not actually flickering, but changing shapes. It will go from being a complete circle, to a half circle with a defined edge to being tear shaped.
For ordering information, please click here. Philippines under Spain to On their voyage that was the first circumnavigation of the globe, the Spanish ships led by Magellan discovered the islands east of Vietnam in While attacking natives on the island of Cebu, Magellan was killed by an arrow.
Juan Carvallo went to the Moluccas and established a factory for collecting cloves at Tidore. Despite their treaty with Portugal, Spain sent ships to these islands. A voyage of five ships from Mexico in named the islands after Prince Philip, and Miguel Lopez de Legazpi led the first permanent Spanish settlements of that were extended to the islands of Cebu, Leyte, Pany, Mindoro, and the plain of Luzon before his death in Manila was founded inand the local chief agreed to let the Spaniards propagate their religion.
The natives had no concept of land as property until the Spaniards started buying it from their chiefs. The Spaniards found this conquest did not help them in the spice trade, nor did it give them access to Japan and China; but their third purpose of converting the natives to Christianity was fairly successful.
The Christians had arrived before Islam had spread beyond the southern islands, and those religious conditions tended to remain. The Chinese Limahong led the pirates that killed Martin de Goiti.
The Chinese had been trying to catch these pirates; so after they were defeated by the Spaniards, interim Philippines governor Lavezares was able to arrange trade relations between the Spaniards and the Chinese before he was replaced by Francisco de Sande in Spanish efforts to invade the Moros in the southern region in and Mindanao in both failed miserably.
In fifteen Franciscans arrived in the Philippines to join the Augustinians, and Domingo de Salazar became the first bishop of Manila three years later. Bishop Salazar later returned to Spain in order to ask for a royal decree to prohibit the forced labor of the Filipinos for building churches and other public works.
He also requested that military escorts for missionaries be abolished. The Jesuits came infollowed by Dominicans in and Recollects in By some missionaries claimed they had baptizedFilipinos. Education was dominated by Christian theology; but key terms were not translated so as not to be confused with indigenous beliefs.
In Spain required all commerce from the Philippines to go through Acapulco in Mexico, and this policy continued until Forces from Manila were sent to attack Ternate; but in Spaniards in a hundred ships were massacred when their Chinese rowers mutinied. In the Dutch helped Ternate repulse an attack by the allied Portuguese and Spaniards. The Philippines were organized into fifteen provinces under alcalde-mayors responsible to the Spanish governor-general; but the pay of the mayors was so low and their local power so despotic that corruption was rampant.
The governor-general had autocratic power and established a supreme court called the Royal Audiencia in Spanish adventures to get involved in Cambodia by helping defend them against Siam began inand in the next ten years Cambodia had six different kings before they decided that Spanish aid was not worth the trouble and agreed to become a vassal state of Siam in Admiral Wittert blockaded Manila Bay for five months inbut in April Spanish ships defeated and killed him.
European traders had often found concubines, who were paid to be temporary wives during visits; but about the Spanish and Dutch noticed that slave women of kings or nobles were being used as prostitutes. The Malay epic Sejarah Melayu of portrayed abortion as a common occurrence.
Because divorce in southeast Asia was usually easy, many observed that husbands had to be more attentive to their wives. They usually married much younger than in Europe. Yet virginity was considered such an obstacle to marriage that it might be ritually removed, probably because blood was believed to be polluting by men. The next year the Dutch defeated the Spaniards at Playa Honda and plundered shipping in Manila Bay for the next three years.
An Anglo-Dutch blockade of Manila lasted sixteen months until May The Dutch built a fort in the Pescadores Islands and in started using Formosa to divert trade from Manila.
The Spaniards won a third naval battle against the Dutch at Playa Honda and built two forts on Formosa. Corcuera decreed the obligation of personal service, and in the Chinese in Laguna revolted against this and abusive tax collectors. Thousands of Chinese were killed before the revolt was subdued the next year.
In the Dutch captured the Formosa forts, and three years later they bombarded the Spanish fort at Jolo. After his term of office, Corcuera was put on trial in a residencia, but he was acquitted. The Spaniards used two old galleons to win several naval victories over the Dutch. In Martin Gerretsen with twelve ships invaded Manila Bay and bombarded the fort at Cavite; but his flagship was sunk by artillery, and he was killed.
The Dutch fleet went to Corregidor and plundered Bataan until they encountered resistance and suffered disease. In Spain and the Netherlands made a treaty at Munster. Some raiding went on until when Coxinga threatened to attack Manila; but the Spaniards withdrew from Zamboanga, the Muslim Moros region, and Ternate.
This retreat allowed Moro raids, but Jesuit requests to reoccupy the fort were denied as too expensive. Juan Ponce Sumoroy led the violent rebellion that spread inbut it was quelled the next year. Rebellion spread again inand Andres Malong proclaimed himself king of Pangasinan. The next year Pedro Almazan was named king of Iloscos, but all these rebel leaders were crushed and executed in San Vitores baptized 13, native Chamorros in the first year.
Kapuha died inand two years later war broke out between the Spaniards and the Chamorros. After their most destructive war, the Chamorros asked for peace, and the Spaniards insisted that they attend mass every Sunday.
San Vitores solicited money from Queen Mariana, and churches were constructed. In April Chief Matapang and his war chief Hirao murdered San Vitores for having baptized his baby daughter without his permission.
This provoked another war, and Matapang was mortally wounded in a battle on the island of Rota in The Spaniards conquered the Chamorros of the Marianas, forcing them to live in five villages after The Chamorro population was reduced from nearlyto 5, by when they were moved to Guam from all the northern Mariana Islands except Rota. The Palaus and Carolines became dependencies of the Philippines in Late in the 17th century the private encomiendas, which could collect taxes, were abolished.
Friars were allowed to borrow money from the Government and the Obras Pias charitable foundationsand in Governor Bustamente learned that both the Government and the Obras Pias were bankrupt. After he urged them to return the money, friars murdered him in The Muslim Malays developed confederacies, and in a Jesuit priest from Manila arbitrated a dispute between Madindanau and Sulu.
Zamboanga was finally fortified again in for campaigns against the Moros. In the sultan of Sulu agreed to release Christian captives and tolerate Christianity, but such alliances did not prevent Moro raiding at sea. In he opened his dominion to Jesuit preaching and even allowed a church and a Spanish fort. Alimud Din fled with his family to Manila, where he was baptized and named the Catholic king of Jolo.
An expedition in to restore him was aborted after he was suspected of treason for having written to the Mindanao sultan saying he had been forced to allow the Catholic religion in his domain. Governor-General Obando issued a decree permitting acts of war against Filipino Muslims, but such plunder and slave-holding was prohibited by other laws. In Alimud was imprisoned at Manila, and other captives were branded on the face as slaves. Alimud was allowed to marry his former concubine in and was given a pension.
Also in Francisco Dagohoy, irritated that a priest would not give his brother a Catholic funeral, led a popular revolt with 3, followers; they held out in the Bohol mountains, and their community of 20, people lasted untilwhen they were given amnesty and resettled.
A series of agrarian uprisings around Manila began in Philip VI ordered the ecclesiastics investigated for usurping land, but the Audiencia and the Council of the Indies in Madrid refused to remedy the injustice. A royal decree in allowed the alcalde-mayors to engage in trade and business; this corrupt policy was not abolished until By the middle of the 18th century less than one thousand Spaniards lived in the Philippines, butChristian Filipinos were counted.
Governor Arandia reorganized the military, but Muslim raids killed and enslaved thousands on the coasts of Luzon and the Bisayas. To neutralize Chinese economic influence, Arandia expelled non-Christian Chinese inbut the Chinese mestizos retained their higher social status. After Spain gave up its neutrality in the Seven Years War to become an ally of France, in the British with 6, men and thirteen ships seized Manila, overcoming the defense by a thousand soldiers and 5, Filipino civilians.
Archbishop Rojo signed the capitulation, but Simon de Anda organized resistance outside the capital, proclaiming himself captain-general and governor. General Drake and Rojo governed the British occupation in Manila.
The British released Alimudin and gave him a boat to return to Jolo, where he was restored to his throne but soon abdicated so that his son Israel could rule. Diego Silang led the largest rebellion in Ilocos, refusing to pay taxes because the Spaniards had not defended the country. The British appointed Silang governor of Ilocos.
Silang had Bishop Ustariz and twelve Augustinian missionaries arrested, but he was killed by Miguel Vico to free them. Governor-General Anda suppressed the uprisings, and he also complained to the king about friars meddling in worldly affairs and owning estates. After news of the European peace treaty arrived, the British evacuated Manila in March The Philippines lost its monopoly over the China trade as Europeans began to compete.
Moro raids began capturing about Filipinos a year to sell as slaves. King Carlos III declared in that parishes could be filled with Filipino secular priests, but they were not yet well educated.
Friars complained, and the King suspended secularization three years later. Governor-General Jose de Basco founded the Economic Society of Friends of the Country in to develop the natural resources of the Philippines. He encouraged the cultivation of indigo, cotton, tobacco, cinnamon, pepper, sugar, silk, hemp, tea, coffee, and the opium poppy, and the next year tobacco became a government monopoly. Compulsory labor on tobacco plantations sometimes prevented workers from growing enough food.
The Philippines government wasted 1, pesos fighting the Muslims between and Philippines under Spain In the 18th century most non-Catholic Chinese had been expelled from the Philippines, and by the Chinese mestizos had taken over their commercial activities. The wine monopoly begun in forbade Ilocanos from even drinking their own wine, and in they rebelled in Piddig, Ilocos Sur. The tobacco monopoly also enabled government officials to exploit the farmers, who were fined if they did not meet production quotas.
Agents cheated them by certifying their tobacco as lower grade and then reporting it to the government as higher grade. In foreign traders were allowed to reside in Manila, and the Philippines began trading with Mexico, California, Peru, and Ecuador.
Some peasants revolted against the wealthy principales. In Sarrat the principales cheated weavers by refusing to pay for cloth they claimed was inferior. On March 3, a crowd of 1, armed with swords, bows and arrows, and pikes protested in the plaza.
They ignored a speech by a priest and attacked the biggest houses, killing a principal and pro-Spanish residents. The rebels took 1, pesos fuertes from a convent and destroyed images, and they looted the houses of the rich. Simon Tomas blamed the principales for their loss of rights; but a priest explained that the Cadiz constitution had been abrogated, and an execution was halted. At San Nicholas they killed two principales and captured nine, but on their way to Laoag the rebels were stopped by a force gathered by some principales.
Other principales organized a force of six hundred armed men, and the alcalde mayor sent the infantry and cavalry. A priest persuaded the rebels to release the principales. The Spanish forces set Sarrat on fire, and those rebel leaders not escaping to the mountains were imprisoned.
In the Mexican revolutionary Agustin Iturbide seized Manila goods sold for two million pesos, devastating the galleon trade. Governor-General Juan Antonio Martinez brought in Spanish officers who no longer could serve in Mexico, and Filipino officers resented the new Spaniards being given higher ranks. By it came to mean anyone born in the Philippines. In Captain Andres Novales organized a mutiny in Manila and was executed with some other officers. Indio priests were demoted when Fernando VII returned the parishes to the friars in That year Governor-General Ricafort issued a series of rules prohibiting various vices such as profane language, lewdness, working on Sundays or holy days, gambling, having guns and knives, idleness, fireworks, and being out after hours.
Two years later foreigners were prohibited from engaging in retail trade, and this was renewed in From until the end of the Spanish rule in the Philippines had fifty different governors-general. The Royal Philippine Company was abolished inand Manila was opened to world trade.
Peale had a monopoly. He criticized Spanish rule but avoided censorship by using allegory, symbolism, and satire. In the Chinese were allowed to live wherever they wanted; after they could choose any occupation, as their ability in commerce helped the economy; and in Chinese immigration was allowed again.
Spanish law did not allow indios to owe more than 25 pesos, and so mestizos would buy land for them and collect rent. In the Spanish government sent Sinnibaldo de Mas to study the Philippines economy, and he advised them to avoid making liberals and insurgents by denying them higher education. In Apolinario de la Cruz was not allowed to join a monastic order because he was a native. Called Hermano Pule and king of the Tagalogs, he led a rebel sect in Tayabas in that stimulated the Tagalog regiment mutiny two years later.
The Governor-General sent two infantry companies and the cavalry.
As his followers fled, Pule and his aide Purgatorio were captured. After a quick trial they were executed. Some of his followers lived in the mountains and were called Colorum after the phrase used in their mass—et saecula saeculorum. Although this resistance was squelched, Filipino resentment of Spanish arrogance and religious intolerance increased. In the Philippines purchased four steam-powered gunboats from the British, giving them the advantage they used to defeat the Muslims of Mindanao in The rajas of the islands of Pilas and Basilan also accepted Spanish sovereignty.
Sultan Muhammad Paralung of Jolo signed such a treaty in In the port of Iloilo was opened to foreign shipping, and the British consul Nicholas Loney began selling sugar machinery to planters for a percentage of the profits. Sugar production in Negros began increasing rapidly, growing from 14, piculs in to 1, piculs in A previous royal decree was implemented with a Permanent Board of Censorship in In the Spanish government made the Mariana Islands into a prison for civilian convicts. Because of the Jesuits and other missionaries, the Philippines became the best educated country in Southeast Asia.
The Jesuits had opened the first college in Manila inand the Dominicans founded the University of Santo Tomas in In the s girls schools with female teachers were established on an equal basis with boys schools. A public system of primary education was implemented in with compulsory attendance from age seven to twelve, and it was free. The curriculum for both sexes was Christian doctrine, reading, writing, Spanish, arithmetic, good manners, and music, but the girls learned sewing and embroidery instead of agriculture and geography.
Also in the Council of the Indies was replaced by the Overseas Ministry, and Spanish laws were extended to the Philippines. The Jesuits were allowed to return to the Philippines inand many native priests lost their parishes. Two years later the Recollect friars, who were transferred from Mindanao to Manila, were given the places of secular Filipinos. After he died in the Manila earthquake ofhis pupil Jose Burgos, who was three-quarters Spanish, published the Manifesto to the Noble Spanish People calling for racial equality in the priesthood.
In the Philippines had 4, Spaniards—3, government officials, clergy, land-owners, and 70 merchants. The export of textiles from the Philippines declined after The telegraph and the opening of the Suez Canal in improved communication and transportation between Spain and the Philippines. By the total population of the Philippines was estimated at five million with 3, native Filipinos,Chinese mestizos,Muslim Filipinos, 25, pagans, 20, Spanish mestizos, 10, Chinese, 4, Spanish-Filipinos, and 2, Spaniards.
In Filipinos administered only out of parishes. After Isabella II was deposed on September 19,laws and religious customs were reformed at a constitutional convention in Madrid, opening the way for universal suffrage and a free press.
The new Constitution went into effect in the Philippines on September 21, Newspapers began to circulate openly as the liberal Governor-General Carlos Maria de la Torre abolished censorship and flogging. He also secularized public education; believing that too many youths were studying law and for the priesthood, he encouraged the pursuit of medicine, pharmacy, and other vocations. Workers at the Cavite Arsenal learned that in January they would have to pay tribute and be subjected to forced labor.
Protesting workers were joined by mutinying Filipino soldiers; seven officers, thirteen soldiers, and some civilians were killed. Suspected leaders were arrested. After a quick court martial, thirteen were executed, and 28 were sentenced to ten years in prison.
Three innocent Filipino priests—Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez, and Jacinto Zamora—were put to death and became famous martyrs for the cause of Filipino independence.
Lawyers appealed, and the 28 prisoners in the Marianas were granted clemency in November but were not allowed to return to the Philippines until April The magazine El Eco Filipino was banned after the mutiny, and intellectuals fled to Hong Kong, Singapore, Japan, and Europe to develop their ideas for reform. Rizal and Filipino Reformers By the s English countries and the United States were the main trading partners of the Philippines. Spain abolished the tobacco monopoly inand the Chinese began taking over the market for lower-grade tobacco by bartering with farmers.
They set up two hundred cigar and cigarette factories in Manila that employed 20, workers. Chinese mestizos also moved into agriculture, and the pacto de retroventa allowed lenders to take over land from borrowers who could not pay or who were cheated because they could not go to court.
Royal decrees in and gave landowners only one year to register their lands; more thansmall landowners lost their lands because they did not acquire the titles. These land grabs caused resentment among farmers who had to work as tenants on land their ancestors had owned. Dominicans dispossessed the tenants of Calamba in Lopez Jaena wrote a satire about a fat and greedy friar and then went to Spain in to study in Madrid.
Marcelo de Pilar completed law school at the University of Santo Tomas in He began editing the journal Dariong Tagalog in He wrote in Tagalog and parodied the catechism and religious formulas in pamphlets.
He fled to Spain in Octoberand the next year he published La Soberaria Monacal en Filipinas, exposing the hypocrisy of the friars and their monasteries. They lobbied to suppress inhuman punishments and taxes on agricultural produce and taxes for the church while encouraging education in Spanish, a civil register, secondary schools, university reforms, agricultural banks, administrative reforms, and construction of roads and railways. They used pen names and smuggled copies into the Philippines.
In July the Spanish Civil Code was applied to the Philippines, and in November the Becerra law authorized the main towns to govern themselves with elections; but Governor-General Weyler and friars did not implement these reforms. Pilar took over as editor in December, and for the next five years La Solidaridad was the principal organ for the reform movement. They called for equal rights, competitive examinations for recruiting officials, abolishing the civil guards, and Filipino representation in the Cortes.
Lodges were established in the Philippines, and they also worked to make the Philippines a province of Spain with representation in the Cortes. By the Philippines had 35 Masonic lodges with nine in Manila, and in July they began admitting women as members. Jose Rizal was born at Calamba in the Laguna province on June 19, His father Francisco Mercado was a Chinese mestizo and wealthy sugar planter.
His mother Teodora Alonso was from a prominent family and was well educated, but she was imprisoned unjustly for two and half years. Jose was educated by Jesuits and at the University of Santo Tomas. He was drawn to literature and wrote poetry. His A la Juventud Filipina in suggested that the Philippines could be a separate nation while giving Spain credit for benefiting them. However, in his one-act verse comedy Junto al Pasig, performed in Decemberthe Devil says that their prosperity is withering because of the influence of Spain.
His allegorical play El Consejo de los Dioses won a contest inbut as a Filipino he was denied the prize. Rizal believed he had a mission to relieve suffering and studied medicine at the University of Madrid. To help the Propaganda Movement he wrote letters to liberal newspapers about the Philippines.
He earned his licentiate in medicine in Juneand that month he made a speech in praise of the artists Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo that made him a leader of the Filipinos in Spain. Rizal went to Paris and Heidelberg to study ophthalmology.
Lacking money, Rizal gave up eating meat. After gaining a university education in Europe, Ibarra returns with zeal to reform the Philippines using education. He is in love with Maria Clara but is blocked by her father, the friar Damaso, and the friar Salvi, who also wants her.
Salvi instigates an uprising, and Ibarra is blamed for financing and leading the rebels. The outlaw Elias had been saved by Ibarra, and he helps Ibarra escape but is shot to death.
This novel criticized friars and Philippine society so severely that the Archbishop wanted it banned. Most of the 2, copies were sent to Spain and the Philippines, where anyone caught reading the book could be punished. Rizal wrote to a friend that this book was intended to unmask the hypocrisy of the false religion that impoverished and brutalized the people. Friar Jose Rodriguez wrote a pamphlet to warn people not to read the novel, and Rizal published a reply satirizing the ignorance of the friar.
He did not call for separation from Spain but better education and government with one or two deputies in the Cortez and more safeguards. In August Rizal returned to Manila, where second-hand copies of Noli Me Tangere were selling for six times the original price. He performed several cataract operations. Governor-General Emilio Terrero y Perinat asked Rizal for a copy of his novel, and by the end of the year the Censorship Commission recommended it be banned for advocating independence.
In Calamba the Dominican hacienda had increased in size without benefiting the people, and Rizal wrote a report on the issue in Januaryrevealing Dominican corruption for 54 years. Rizal was advised to leave the Philippines, and he went to Hong Kong in February even while ill. On March 1 some ward leaders in Manila petitioned the Governor to expel the friars from the Philippines; 28 people who signed the petition were imprisoned. Terrero left the Philippines in May and was replaced by Valeriano Weyler a few weeks later.
In Calamba the low sugar prices and high rents and fees charged by the hacienda caused families to go hungry, and cholera broke out. In London he wrote about Calamba in La Solidaridad. Jose Rizal became a freemason in Paris. Rizal went to Madrid in August to complete his second novel, El Filibusterismo.
The title suggests revolution as a nearly hopeless cause. On September 6 troops entered Calamba and gave the Rizals and thirty families one day to leave. Their houses were pulled down; forty heads of families were deported, and three hundred families were left destitute.
Rizal revised his novel, making it a clearer call for revolution. Del Pilar complained that Rizal was not writing articles for Solidaridad, and the Propaganda in Manila ordered them to reconcile. Valentin Ventura loaned him money to pay for the printing. The hero of Noli Me Tangere, Ibarra, returns to the Philippines in disguise as Simoun to foment a revolution for the oppressed. He uses money to expose the corruption of friars and officials while organizing an armed rebellion.
Ibarra tries to rescue Maria Clara from a convent, and in the last chapter while dying he goes to the priest Florentino, who explains that the violent methods based on hate fail, making the novel a warning. Crimes cannot be ended by more crimes, and the country cannot be given to those who cause its ruin. Hate creates monsters, and only love works wonders.
Their country will not be freed by vice and crime but by virtue, sacrifice, and love. Rizal wrote to Blumentritt that he had to return to the Philippines to be an example without fearing death.
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He arrived in Hong Kong in November and learned that his mother Teodora Alonso had been imprisoned again for not using her name Realonda de Rizal even though she had been forbidden to use the name Rizal. He planned a nationwide society that would have regional councils.
Many copies of his new novel were seized by customs at Iloilo. Rizal abandoned the hope of assimilation and wanted liberation from Spain. He visited Sandakan and talked with British officials. Alexander Cook offered him 5, acres free of rent for three years, but he learned that Despujol did not approve the project.
Rizal returned to Manila on June 26,and in the next week he met with Despujol several times. Their goals were to unite the Philippines; provide mutual assistance and defense against violence and injustice; encourage education, agriculture, and commerce; and study and practice reforms. Four days later Rizal was arrested, and on July 14 he was deported to Dapitan, a remote Jesuit town in Mindanao.
On the same night they learned of the deportation Bonifacio and six others formed the secret society called Katipunan. Bonifacio organized chapters in Manila among the middle and lower classes that were more radical and stopped sending funds to Madrid.
The former lasted only a few months, and the latter no longer sought assimilation with Spain but rather advocated separation and armed revolution. Bonifacio continued to work for the Liga and organized Katipunan in October They used secret codes to hide their writings. In addition to the political goal of separation from Spain, Bonifacio advocated better morals without religious fanaticism or weakness of character.
Civic aims included self-help and defending the poor and the oppressed. All members were encouraged to aid sick comrades and their families. Bonifacio did not take the leadership office until after others had failed. Jacinto edited the first edition of their newspaper Freedom Kalayaan that came out in March and advocated revolt against the Spaniards. Marcelo del Pilar was listed as editor, and two thousand copies were printed.
Before the second issue could be published, the Government raided them and put their press out of business. Just one issue of Kalayaan increased the membership of Katipunan from to an estimated 30, Meanwhile Rizal taught school and worked in a hospital in Dapitan for four years. Josephine Bracken became his common-law wife and had a stillborn child. Revolution had erupted in Cuba in Februaryand the Spanish Government asked for young doctors to serve in the military because of the yellow fever epidemic.
In July Dr. Pio Valenzuela came and told him that revolution was imminent in the Philippines. Rizal believed the revolution was premature and warned that it would fail, that Bonifacio was leading people to suicide.
At the end of the month Rizal was given permission to serve as a medical officer in Cuba. The next day nearly the whole town said goodbye to the man who had taught and healed them.
The ship that Rizal took to Manila arrived a day late, and so he had to wait a month for a ship to Barcelona. He was detained on the cruiser Castilla at Cavite, and only his family could visit him.
Governor-General Blanco arrested 22 people in August who were connected to anti-national secret societies. Rizal told Blanco he could use his name to help stop the revolution, and on September 2 he was transferred to a ship going to Spain. At Singapore a filibustero suspect escaped; but Rizal had given his word to Blanco he would go to Cuba. Rizal was put under arrest before they arrived at Barcelona, and from there he was sent back to Manila for trial.
His brother Paciano was tortured so severely that he could not move; but he kept silent. Francisco Olive, who had commanded the troops that drove the Rizals from their home inwas the judge advocate, and he interrogated Rizal for five days.
Dominicans were determined to get Blanco removed, and General Camilo de Polavieja replaced him on December His name was being used as a rallying cry to take up arms, but this surprised and grieved him.
He believed the insurrection was absurd and disastrous. Rizal also spoke in detail, and neither he nor his lawyer begged for mercy. With the rebellion raging, the public mood was strong. Rizal was convicted and sentenced to death.
Polavieja approved the sentence and scheduled the execution for December Dominicans tried to get Rizal to retract his previous writings, and Vicente Balaguer even perpetrated a fraud that he had done so and had married Josephine on his last day.
Rizal was not allowed to send messages, but he composed the poem Ultimo Adios in his head and wrote it down during his last night and hid it in a lamp, telling his family about it in English. He sang to his beloved country and concluded, I go to where there are no slaves, no hangmen, no oppressors, Where faith does not slay, where he who reigns is God. Farewell, my parents and family, fragments of my soul, Friends of childhood in the home we have lost; Give thanks that I take rest after the oppressive day; Farewell, sweet stranger, my companion, my happiness; Farewell, friend, whoever you may be.
To die, to rest—it is the same. Rizal was shot in the back as a traitor, but he managed to turn and fall with his face up. His family sent his last poem to Hong Kong, where J. Braga published it in a monthly journal.
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Filipino Revolution After the Katipunan press was destroyed, Andres Bonifacio and Jacinto tried to raise money for the revolution by listing rich Filipinos as donors.
When they failed to contribute, the documents were leaked to the Government. Francisco Roxas pleaded his innocence but was executed, and others were imprisoned or were saved by bribery. Bonifacio met with Admiral Kanimura on a ship in Manila Bay, but the Japanese declined to support the revolution.
After locusts destroyed the rice fields in Central Luzon in the summer ofthe friar landowners refused to allow rent remittance while some even demanded an increase.
By August many of the poor were so enthusiastic about Katipunan that they were meeting every night. Hundreds of people in Manila were arrested for illegal association and treason. On August 21 Bonifacio changed the code and led about five hundred rebels from Balintawak to Pugadlawin. There they vowed to fight to the end and then burned their cedulas. A skirmish with civil guards took place on August 24, killing one guard and two rebels. The rebels had few guns and retreated.
In the south a thousand men attacked the civil guards at Pasig, and four hundred rebels captured the church at Pandakan. Bonifacio and his men were able to take San Mateo, Mariquina, and Montalban, but the Spaniards recaptured them.
The Government tortured prisoners until they revealed names of others. Hundreds more were arrested, and heads of families were deported to the Carolines or the Spanish penal colony in Africa. Fort Santiago became overcrowded with Filipino suspects. When a Spanish soldier covered the only vent with a rug, hundreds died of suffocation. Prisoners were hanged by the hands and dropped to the floor, and electric wires were connected to their hands or feet to make them talk.
Four Katipuneros were shot to death at the Luneta on September 4, and thirteen in Cavite were executed eight days later. Spaniards executed an unknown number of Filipinos in Mindanao in October.
Under Governor-General Polavieja twelve Bicolano rebels were executed on January 4,and more than four thousand died in Manila jails. On September 2 Mariano Llanera led two thousand revolutionaries against the Spanish garrison at San Isidro in Nueva Ecija, and they held the town three days before retreating. People killed a priest in Hermosa, Bataan, and three thousand revolutionaries from there and Pampango towns did battle.
On October 31 General Aguinaldo decreed that the goal of the revolution was the independence of the Philippines, and the watchwords were liberty, equality, and fraternity. His decrees implied that a new revolutionary government had replaced the secret Katipunan, but the Magdiwang Council in Cavite disagreed with this and his Magdala Council.
General Blanco launched an offensive in Cavite in early November, but at the urging of the Dominicans he was replaced on December 13 by the more brutal General Camilo de Polavieja. His Cavite campaigns began in early January The divided revolutionaries suffered reverses, and Bonifacio was asked to mediate the conflict. An assembly of revolutionaries met at Imus on December 31, but the Magdala and Magdiwang factions could not agree.
They met again at Tejeros on March 22, Bonifacio got the convention to agree to elections. Emilio Aguinaldo was elected president and Bonifacio director of the Interior.
However, Daniel Tirona said that the Interior director should be an educated lawyer. When he refused to retract his statement, the insulted Bonifacio annulled the elections and dissolved the assembly. The next day Aguinaldo and the others elected took their oath of office at Santa Cruz de Malabon while Bonifacio and 45 men met again in Tejeros. Bonifacio and his followers went to Naik and established a separate government with General Pio del Pilar as commander-in-chief. Many of the elite from Cavite did not like Bonifacio because he was not formally educated and was a mason and an employee of a German firm.
Alas falsely accused Bonifacio of accepting bribes from friars to start a war while poorly armed. While they were arresting him, Andres Bonifacio and his brother Procopio were wounded, and their brother Ciriaco was killed. Their trial before a Council of War lasted five days. President Aguinaldo commuted the death sentences to banishment on May 8, but several men persuaded him to withdraw his order.
Two days later Andres and Procopio Bonifacio were executed by the revolutionary government. Governor-General Primo de Rivera arrived in Manila on April 23, and offered amnesty to those rebels who surrendered their weapons by May 17, but most Filipinos ignored the decree.
Aguinaldo suffered defeats and lost Cavite by May Aguinaldo was attacked at Mount Puray on June 14, but he was victorious. He moved his headquarters to Biacnabato in San Miguel, Bulacan.