In its initial conception, the Brooklyn Bridge had an honorable goal: Providing safe passage across the rough and frigid East River for Brooklyn residents who worked in Manhattan. In the s, Prussian-born engineer John Augustus Roebling dreamed of a suspension bridge that would make the commute easier for these working class New Yorkers.
The engineer developed tetanus as a result of these wounds and passed away in July The younger Roebling soon developed a problem of his own. InRoebling came down with this decompression sickness and was confined to bed.
After Washington Roebling fell ill, a third Roebling stepped in as the de facto chief engineer of the bridge, his wife, Emily Warren Roebling.
Although Emily began her tenure running orders between her husband, who was laid up in a Brooklyn Heights apartment with a view of construction, and his workers, she soon took bona fide command of the project, overseeing the design, construction, and business management of the tremendous undertaking.
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Emily Warren Roebling is now widely recognized as a pioneering female engineer and a driving force behind the bridge. Following her work on the bridge, Emily went on to earn a degree in law from New York University and published essays in favor of gender equality.
Technically, the rooster was tied for first. John Augustus Roebling himself is credited with introducing the steel-wire innovation into bridge design. Construction materials were accumulated under the watch of John Augustus Roebling, who failed to notice that he had been swindled on his cable wire.
Lloyd Haigh snuck a substantial amount of inferior, even faulty, wire into the mix. The flaw went unrecognized until after the wires were incorporated into the standing bridge, at which point replacing them was impossible.
Hillary Clinton posing with Girl Scouts The program was originally for girls ages 10 to 18, but it was subsequently divided into three levels. Brownies for younger girls was based on a program developed in England in and was officially recognized in the mids.
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Inthe age divisions were: Brownies ages 7 through 9Intermediates ages 10 through 13and Seniors ages 14 through Inthe Studio 2B program for girls ages 11 to 17 was introduced for Cadettes and Seniors. Under the Studio 2B programs, girls were able to work on traditional badges as well as Studio 2B activities, and the Silver Award and Gold Award requirements were rewritten to require both.
Studio 2B activities differed from badges in two ways: She would create her own plan for achieving her goal, following a basic planning procedure called SMART specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, timely.
On October 1,all levels were renamed to have "Girl Scout" as the beginning of their name, e. A new level, Girl Scout Ambassadors, was created for girls in grades 11 and 12 around 16 to 18 years oldwith Girl Scout Seniors to be only in ninth and tenth grade around 14 to 16 years old and sixth grade girls were reclassified from the Junior level to Cadette to conform with school grade levels.
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By this time, sixth grade was considered a middle school rather than an elementary school grade. The new levels were tried in approximately six councils in spring and were put to use nationally after October 1, Although troop membership has always and is still the most common way to participate in Girl Scouting, girls who do not have a local troop, or who do not desire or have the time to participate in traditional troop activities, can still sign up as individual Girl Scouts.
Individual Girls Scouts were known in the early years of Girl Scouting as Lone Scouts and later as Juliettes; they attend activities independently and work individually on badges and awards.
In —, the term Juliette was phased out in favor of the term Independent Girl Scouts.
The Campus Girl Scouts program allows women ages 18 and older to be active in Girl Scouting while in college. Campus Girl Scouting is an organization that helps promote and build student involvement in the community, the local council, and the college campus through service.
The Mariner Girl Scout program remains active but in a smaller form; most girls have instead joined Sea Scouting, which has been coed since The Girl Scouts Beyond Bars program helps daughters of incarcerated mothers connect with their mothers and helps mothers participate in Girl Scout activities.
Another program, Girl Scouting in Detention Centers, allows girls who are themselves in detention centers to participate in Scouting.