Source languages[ edit ] Japanese has a long history of borrowing from foreign languages. It has been doing so since the late fourth century AD. Some ancient "gairaigo" words are still being used nowadays, but there are also many kinds of "gairaigo" words that were borrowed more recently. Most, but not all, modern gairaigo are derived from Englishparticularly in the post-World War II era after Words are taken from English for concepts that do not exist in Japanese, but also for other reasons, such as a preference for English terms or fashionability — many gairaigo have Japanese synonyms.
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In the past, more gairaigo came from other languages besides English. The first period of borrowing occurred during the late fourth century AD, when a massive number of Chinese characters were adopted. This period could be considered as one of the most significant history of "gairaigo", because it was the first moment when the written communication systems, such as Kanji and Hiragana, were formed. The first non-Asian countries to have extensive contact with Japan were Portugal and the Netherlands in the 16th and 17th centuries, and Japanese has several loanwords from Portuguese and Dutchmany of which are still used.
The interaction between Japan and Portugal lasted from the late middle age until the early Edo era. An example of the loanwords from Portuguese is Rasha, meaning a thick wool cloth that was indispensable during the period, but not used often nowadays.
In the Edo erawords from the Dutch language, such as "glass", "gas", and "alcohol", started to have an impact in the Japanese language.
Also, during the Edo era, many medical words like "Gaze"[ clarification needed ] and "neuroses" came from German, and many artistic words such as rouge and Dessin came from French. Most of the Gairaigo since the nineteenth century came from English. In the Meiji era late 19th to early 20th centuryJapan also had extensive contact with Germanyand gained many loanwords from Germanparticularly for Western medicine, which the Japanese learned from the Germans.
They also gained several loanwords from French at this time.
Chinese words are often represented with Chinese characters, but with katakana gloss to indicate the unusual pronunciation, while Korean words, which no longer regularly use Chinese characters hanjaare represented in katakana. More recent Korean borrowings are influenced both by proximity, and to the substantial population of Koreans in Japan since the early 20th century. Inthere were 85 "gairaigo" of Dutch origin and 72 "gairaigo" of English origin listed in a Japanese dictionary.
These words are generally transliterations which were unknowningly borrowed from Chinese. Wasei-kango In addition to borrowings, which adopted both meaning and pronunciation, Japanese also has an extensive set of new words that are crafted using existing Chinese morphemes to express a foreign term.
These are known as wasei-kango "Japanese-made Chinese words". This process is similar to the creation of classical compounds in European languages. Many were coined in the Meiji period, and these are very common in medical terminology.
These are not considered gairaigo, as the foreign word itself has not been borrowed, and sometimes a translation and a borrowing are both used. Transcription into Japanese In written Japanesegairaigo are usually written in katakana.
Everything would be done legally before the eyes of the law and we would not be braking sic the law. Letters and emails like these two are part and parcel of modern living. Readers pass on dozens of them to us every week, usually attached with a short note saying: But how does it work? Most people will just delete the message.
But because scams like this are, for most people, quite unbelievable, the crooks can virtually guarantee that anyone who does reply is particularly vulnerable. Unless, they are, like me, a journalist keen to waste their time.
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I reply, describing how baffled I am. Agent Bolt writes with more detail. There were documents inside which identified me as the recipient and the sender as being someone in Nigeria. This is a classic strategy and plays on greed and a little bit of desperation.
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I reply again, confused. By the time he gets back to me things have moved on. Now my package has been sent to a storage facility. Your consignment has to pass through legal clearance process before green light can be granted for the release to you as mandated by the White House.
This is like something from a movie. An unclaimed holiday, a prize draw for a cruise, or some unclaimed shares are among the common hooks used to lure victims Like many scams, there is the air of credibility about it for anyone who cares to check.
He purports to work from an address in New York, which if you look on the internet, is an actual FBI office. Because this is the internet, Agent Bolt could be anywhere.
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Mr Cave, when he replies, is full of jargon and very official. That is gibberish, but it sounds formal enough to make you a bit worried. And so we eventually get to the scam. This is a simple advance fee fraud. I get emailed a very unprofessional looking certificate that comes from the Office of the Presidency in Nigeria.
So I push for more information. I need to send it via Western Union. This again is a classic fraudster tactic. When you send money through Western Union it is virtually untraceable. The crook will just go to the depot where it has been sent and walk away with it in cash. Again, I express scepticism, and am emailed their international passport.
Can I speak to him? Can I email him?
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Mr Cave is getting frustrated. Some hack into well-known dating websites.
After making contact online they gradually begin building a long-distance relationship.