• BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard
  • Other Resources
  • IJERPH Free FullText Social Networking Sites and Addiction Ten Lessons Learned
  • Social Norms (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

  • See Article History Censorship, the changing or the suppression or prohibition of speech or writing that is deemed subversive of the common good. It occurs in all manifestations of authority to some degree, but in modern times it has been of special importance in its relation to government and the rule of law. That officer, who conducted the census, regulated the morals of the citizens counted and classified.

    But, however honourable the origins of its name, censorship itself is today generally regarded as a relic of an unenlightened and much more oppressive age. Illustrative of this change in opinion is how a community responds to such a sentiment as that with which Protagoras c.

    About the gods I am not able to know either that they are, or that they are not, or what they are like in shape, the things preventing knowledge being many, such as the obscurity of the subject and that the life of man is short. Such statements would no doubt have been received with hostility, and probably with social if not even criminal sanctions, throughout the ancient world.

    In most places in the modern world, on the other hand, such a statement could be made without the prospect of having to endure a pained and painful community response.

    This change reflects, among other things, a profound shift in opinion as to what is and is not a legitimate concern of government. Whereas it could once be maintained that the law forbids whatever it does not permit, it is now generally accepted—at least wherever Western liberalism is in the ascendancy—that one may do whatever is not forbidden by law.

    BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard

    Furthermore, it is now believed that what may be properly forbidden by law is quite limited. Much is made of permitting people to do with their lives including their opinions as they please, so long as they do no immediate and evident usually physical harm to others.

    This respect for individuality has its roots both in Christian doctrines and in the not unrelated sovereignty of the self reflected in state-of-nature theories about the foundations of social organization. Vital to this approach is the general opinion about the nature and sanctity of the human soul.

    This can be put in terms of liberty—the liberty to become and to do what one pleases. The old, or traditional, argument against censorship was much less individualistic and much more political in its orientation, making more of another sense of liberty.

    According to that sense, if a people is to be self-governing, it must have access to all information and arguments that may be relevant to its ability to discuss public affairs fully and to assess in a competent manner the conduct of the officials it chooses.

    In the circumstances of a people actually governing itself, it is obvious that there is no substitute for freedom of speech and of the pressparticularly as that freedom permits an informed access to information and opinions about political matters.

    Whether anyone who thus rules unjustly, or otherwise improperly, can be regarded as truly understanding and hence truly controlling his situation is a question not limited to these circumstances.

    Restraints upon speaking and publishingand indeed upon action generally, are fewer now than at most times in the history of the country. This absence of restraints is reflected as well in the very terms in which these rights and privileges are described.

    It may even be to assume that the self has, intrinsic to it or somehow available to it independent of any social guidance, intimations of what it is and what it wants. Thus, liberation may be seen in the desire of most people to be free to pursue their own goals and life plans—which may involve a reliance upon standards and objectives that are solely their own.

    It is tempting, in such circumstances, to adopt a radical subjectivism that tends to result in a thoroughgoing relativism with respect to moral and political judgments. One consequence of this approach is to identify an ever-expanding array of forms and media of expression that are entitled to immunity from government regulation—including not only broadcast and print media books and newspapers but also text messaging and Internet media such as blogssocial networking sites, and e-commerce sites.

    This means, among other things, that a people must be prepared and equipped to make effective use of its considerable political power. Even those rulers who act without the authority of the people must take care to shape their people in accordance with the needs and circumstances of their regime. This kind of effort need not be altogether selfish on the part of such rulers, since all regimes do have an interest in law and order, in common decency, and in a routine reliability or loyalty.

    It should be evident that a people entrusted with the power of self-government must be able to exercise a disciplined judgment: What is particularly difficult to argue for, and to maintain, is an arrangement that, while it leaves a people clearly free politically to discuss fully all matters of public interest with a view toward governing itself, routinely prepares that same people for an effective exercise of its considerable freedom.

    In such circumstances, there are some who would take the case for, and the rhetoric of, liberty one step farther, insisting that no one should try to tell anyone else what kind of person he should be. There are others, however, who maintain that a person is truly free only if he knows what he is doing and chooses to do what is right.

    Anyone else, in their view, is a prisoner of illusions and appetites, however much he may believe that he is freely expressing himself.

    There are, then, two related sets of concerns evident in any consideration of the forms and uses of censorship. One set of concerns has to do with the everyday governance of the community; the other, with the permanent shaping of the character of the people. The former is more political in its methods, and the latter is more educational. History of censorship It should be instructive to consider how the problem of censorship has been dealt with in the ancient world, in premodern times, and in the modern world.

    Care must be taken here not to assume that the modern democratic regime, of a self-governing people, is the only legitimate regime. Rather, it is prudent to assume that most of those who have, in other times and places, thought about and acted upon such matters have been at least as humane and as sensible in their circumstances as modern democrats are apt to be in theirs. Ancient Greece and Rome It was taken for granted in the Greek communities of antiquity, as well as in Rome, that citizens would be formed in accordance with the character and needs of the regime.

    This did not preclude the emergence of strong-minded men and women, as may be seen in the stories of Homerof Plutarchof Tacitusand of the Greek playwrights.

    But it was evident, for example, that a citizen of Sparta was much more apt to be tough and unreflective and certainly uncommunicative than a citizen of Corinth with its notorious openness to pleasure and luxury. Presiding over religious observances was generally regarded as a privilege of citizenship: A refusal to conform, at least outwardly, to the recognized worship of the community subjected one to hardships. And there could be difficulties, backed up by legal sanctions, for those who spoke improperly about such matters.

    The force of religious opinions could be seen not only in prosecutions for refusals to acknowledge the gods of the city but perhaps even more in the frequent unwillingness of a city no matter what its obvious political or military interests to conduct public business at a time when the religious calendar, auspicesor other such signs forbade civic activities.

    Indicative of respect for the proprieties was the secrecy with which the religious mysteries, such as those into which many Greek and Roman men were initiated, were evidently practiced—so much so that there does not seem to be any record from antiquity of precisely what constituted the various mysteries. Respect for the proprieties may be seen as well in the outrage provoked in Sparta by a poem by Archilochus 7th century bce in which he celebrated his lifesaving cowardice. Athensit can be said, was much more liberal than the typical Greek city.

    This is not to suggest that the rulers of the other cities did not, among themselves, freely discuss the public business. But in Athens the rulers included much more of the population than in most cities of antiquity—and freedom of speech for political purposes spilled over there into the private lives of citizens. This may be seen, perhaps best of all, in the famous funeral address given by Pericles in bce.

    Athenians, he pointed out, did not consider public discussion merely something to be put up with; rather, they believed that the best interests of the city could not be served without a full discussion of the issues before the assembly. There may be seen in the plays of an Aristophanes the kind of uninhibited discussions of politics that the Athenians were evidently accustomed to, discussions that could in the license accorded to comedy be couched in licentious terms not permitted in everyday discourse.

    The limits of Athenian openness may be seen, of course, in the trial, convictionand execution of Socrates in bce on charges that he corrupted the youth and that he did not acknowledge the gods that the city did but acknowledged other new divinities of his own. One may see as well, in the Republic of Platoan account of a system of censorship, particularly of the arts, that is comprehensive. Not only are various opinions particularly misconceptions about the gods and about the supposed terrors of death to be discouraged, but various salutary opinions are to be encouraged and protected without having to be demonstrated to be true.

    Much of what is said in the Republic and elsewhere reflects the belief that the vital opinions of the community could be shaped by law and that men could be penalized for saying things that offended public sensibilities, undermined common moralityor subverted the institutions of the community. Such regimes should be compared with those in the age of the good Roman emperors, the period from Nerva c. Ancient Israel and early Christianity Much of what can be said about ancient Greece and Rome could be applied, with appropriate adaptationsto ancient Israel.

    The stories of the difficulties encountered by Jesusand the offenses he came to be accused of, indicate the kinds of restrictions to which the Jews were subjected with respect to religious observances and with respect to what could and could not be said about divine matters. It may be seen as well in the ancient opinion that there is a name for God that must not be uttered.

    It should be evident that this way of life—directing both opinions and actions and extending down to minute daily routines—could not help but shape a people for centuries, if not for millennia, to come. But it should also be evident that those in the position to know, and with a duty to act, were expected to speak out and were, in effect, licensed to do so, however cautiously they were obliged to proceed on occasion.

    On an earlier, perhaps even more striking, occasion, the patriarch Abraham dared to question God about the terms on which Sodom and Gomorrah might be saved from destruction Genesis But such presumptuousness on the part of mere mortals is possible, and likely to bear fruit, only in communities that have been trained to share and to respect certain moral principles grounded in thoughtfulness. The thoughtfulness to which the Old Testament aspires is suggested by the following counsel by Moses to the people of Israel Deuteronomy 4: Behold, I have taught you statutes and ordinances, as the Lord my God commanded me, that you should do them in the land which you are entering to take possession of it.

    It should be remembered that to say everything one thought or believed was regarded by pre-Christian writers as potentially irresponsible or licentious: Christian writers, however, called for just such saying of everything as the indispensable witness of faith: Thus, we see an encouragement of the private—of an individuality that turned eventually against organized religion itself and legitimated a radical self-indulgence.

    Ancient China Perhaps no people has ever been so thoroughly trained, on such a large scale and for so long, as the Chinese. Critical to that training was a system of education that culminated in a rigorous selection, by examination, of candidates for administrative posts. Particularly influential was the thought of Confucius — bcewith its considerable emphasis upon deference to authority and to family elders and upon respect for ritual observances and propriety.

    Cautiousness in speech was encouraged; licentious expressions were discouraged; and long-established teachings were relied upon for shaping character. It has been suggested that such sentiments have operated to prevent the spread in China of opinions supportive of political liberty. Blatant oppressiveness, and an attempt to stamp out the influence of Confucius and of other sages, could be seen in the wholesale destruction of books in China in bce.

    But the Confucian mode was revived thereafter, to become the dominant influence for almost two millennia.

    Other Resources

    Its pervasiveness may well be judged oppressive by contemporary Western standards, since so much depended, it seems, on mastering the orthodox texts and discipline. Whether or not the typical Chinese government was indeed oppressive, effective control of information was lodged in the authorities, since access to the evidently vital public archives of earlier administrations was limited to a relative few. In addition, decisive control of what was thought, and how, depended in large part on a determination of what the authoritative texts were—something that has been critical in the West, as well, in the establishment of useful canons, both sacred and secular.

    It may also be based on scholarship and the use of critical methods in the interest of advancing a taste for literature, art, learning, and science. Perhaps the most dramatic form of censorship in Christendom was that displayed in the development by the Roman Catholic Church of the Index Librorum Prohibitoruma list of proscribed books, the origins of which go back in a primitive form to the 5th century ce and which continued to have official sanction well into the 20th century.

    The most spectacular instance of the silencing of a thinker of note may well have been the restrictions placed upon Galileo in Galileo, oil painting by Justus Sustermans, c.

    This must have appeared even more acute a problem when means became available, especially after the invention of printingto produce and distribute books in large quantities. The establishment of a fairly precise orthodoxy led to a perhaps unprecedented recourse to creeds. Thus, for example, the Nicene Creed was promulgated in ce. It was devised to fend off a heretical threat to Christian doctrine—and it led, partly because of a unilateral change in wording made by the Western church, to a schism that has continued since between Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism.

    Thus, it very much mattered which doctrines people were taught and what came to be believed—and this was largely determined, as it usually is, by the action of some authority, ecclesiastical or temporal. Similar developments can be seen in the Islamic world to this day.

    It is difficult to distinguish religious and nonreligious elements in some of the more celebrated controversies of the medieval Christian world, just as it is today among Islamic peoples. The persecutions of witches—which ranged across much of Europe from the 14th to the 18th century and cost hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of lives—can be understood as due to various political, social, and psychic disturbances as well as to strictly religious differences.

    The trials of Joan of Arc in France and of Thomas More in England are notorious illustrations of the difficulty in distinguishing religious from political differences. Indeed, it has been common, because of the experiences of the Middle Ages and of the Renaissanceto see the cause of political liberty as intimately related to the cause of religious liberty and especially the liberty to do without religion.

    The Enlightenmentbeginning in the 17th century, attempted to purge Europe of the censorship that found political despotism allied with religious traditionalism.

    Alexis de Tocqueville was astonished to find in the United States, in the s, that it was possible for ordinary men who stood for political freedom to be, and to remain, religiously devout. This was not the typical combination in the Europe of his day. Even so, it should be recognized that the rigorous medieval theological-political regime against which Moderns have rebelled did have at its core a principle that subjected the exercise of will or sovereignty to the test of wisdom.

    There was the effort to keep government from reviewing, before publication, any manuscript, and there was the effort to keep government from penalizing, after publication, any text that expressed forbidden sentiments.

    There were throughout the Western world developments with respect to these matters similar to those in Great Britain and the United States, but they usually occurred later.

    Previous restraint or licensing came to be regarded as an inheritance of Roman Catholic practices. And so, when the Anglican successor to the Roman Catholic Church was disestablished by the Puritansit was evidently something of a shock to John Milton to find Parliament reinstating licensing in Milton conceded that criminal prosecutions might, perhaps even should, follow upon the publication of certain writings.

    He insisted, however, that such works must not be suppressed before publication. Related to this opinion is the assurance that it is a positive good for mankind to be exposed to error; only in this way may virtue be tested, strengthened, and made adequate to the trials of earthly life.

    A reliance upon due process of law which Milton in effect calls for is the vital concession that the community can be led to make to reason: And, Milton might add if he were to use modern terminology, due process provides the ground rules for that free and open encounter in which truth may indeed prevail over error. And so, in —69, William Blackstone could say about the English common law with respect to liberty of the press in his Commentaries on the Laws of England: The liberty of the press.

    Every freeman has an undoubted right to lay what sentiments he pleases before the public; to forbid this, is to destroy the freedom of the press: The next major step in the Anglo-American response to censorship problems may be seen in the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.

    That amendment, ratified inprovides: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

    Similar provisions may be found in most of the state constitutions in the United States, although the connection between political and religious liberty is not always recognized to be as intimate as it is in the First Amendment. Such a guarantee of freedom of the press as is found in U. The question remains, of course, as to precisely what kinds of matters may be discussed freely, and without fear of sanction, by citizens entitled to such protection as is provided by the First Amendment.

    Information on all facets of K state education programs with links to a variety of resources on the Internet. Los Angeles County Board of Education. Use their PowerSearch engine to find exactly what you're looking for. Los Angeles Unified School District. School district resources which include classroom management tips, success strategies, and helpful hints. State Departments of Education.

    This site provides links to the 50 state departments of education in the United States.

    IJERPH Free FullText Social Networking Sites and Addiction Ten Lessons Learned

    Contains a Teacher's Guide to resources offered by the Department as well as programs and services, additional publications and products, news releases, and links to other sites of interest to teachers. You can also search the Department's document collection by entering key words. There are sections for age groups K-2, and which feature the U. Constitution, how laws are made, the branches of government, and citizenship. There is a separate section for parents and educators.

    Also included are games and activities, e-mail for kids to ask questions and links to related sites. Among its sections are: Just select the email address of your Senator or Representative and you can write your lawmaker a letter. Embassies and consulates with a Web presence in the U. Also provides links to related resources. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Overview, general information, crime statistics and current FBI investigations.

    In addition to U. This site was developed and is maintained by the Federal Consumer Information Center. It provides elementary and secondary teachers links to Federal kids' sites along with kids' sites from other organizations all grouped by subject.

    Provides information about major constitutional cases heard and decided by the Supreme Court of the United States. You can listen to recordings of the Court's proceedings via RealAudio. StateSearch is a service of the National Association of State Information Resource Executives and is designed to serve as a topical clearinghouse to state government information on the Internet. The CyberSchoolBus will take you to all the UN sites you'll want for your classroom including a virtual tour of the UN's premises so that students can browse through its history.

    United Nations Home Page. Overview, news, and information resources dealing with the United Nations.

    Includes UN photos which you can reproduce for classroom use. Includes data maps, interactive software to view profiles of states and countries, and economic information. You can Email your questions and comments to their "Ask the Experts" page, search the census bureau data base, and also subscribe to a mailing list.

    Department of the Treasury. Everything you wanted to know about our nation's currency. Includes a history of paper money and how new bills are created. Government Agencies Home Pages for Kids.

    The site includes links to these Kids' Homes Pages: House of Representatives Home Page.

    House of Representatives' World Wide Web service provides public access to legislative information as well as information about Members, Committees, and Organizations of the House. Provides links to other U. Mint The site includes information about the 50 states coin program, a history of coin denominations, facts about the Mint, and bullion and coin production.

    Senate World Wide Web Server. Provides information about the members of the Senate, Senate Committees, and Senate leadership and support offices. Also includes general background information about U. Senate legislative procedures, Senate facilities in the Capitol Building, and the history of the Senate. Recent decisions of the U. Supreme Court are indexed by topic or they can be retrieved through a key word search.

    Also includes selected pre decisions, a gallery of the justices, and information on how to subscribe via email to U. Supreme Court decisions in bulletin format written hours after their release.

    State Department Travel Advisories. Information on current travel advisories but in addition contains factsheets for each country. The site, provided by a U. Mudd and the Lincoln assassination, the postmortem career of John Wilkes Booth and interesting facts about Lincoln's assassination. Abraham Lincoln Research Site. A former American History teacher shares many facts about President Lincoln presented in an interesting way suitable for grades A Deeper Shade of History Black History At this site, you can find interesting facts for this particular week in Black History, search for topics in their database, or search the calendar for facts about a particular month or year.

    Aesop's Fables Online Exhibit. Teachers will find over of the fables, some of which offer RealAudio encoding. A great way to enrich a unit on Ancient Greece at the middle school level. AFI's Years Movies. American Film Institute announces its list of the greatest American films. Teachers and students can browse the resources by collection, country, subject, through an interactive map of the continent or by keywords or multiple fields.

    Links to museums, newspapers, events and people in black history, as well as numerous related links that celebrate the African-American experience. Provides detailed information for each African country including flags, maps, and links to other online resources. This site explores African-American history from the beginning of the slave trade, through the Civil Rights movement, to the present. Resources include traditional folk tales, commentary and speeches, the text of 26 related books, historical documents, brief biographies, synopses of key historical events, trivia games and a collection of related links.

    Pictures and text about the life of Alexander the Great with links to other resources. Written by students at the Gotha Middle School in Windermere, Florida, the site contains an extensive list of biographies of important figures in American history, from the Founding Fathers to modern rocker Kurt Cobain.

    Students can follow the Civil War timeline, view state battle maps, read about women in the war, or get details on battles from the alphabetical listing or battle statistics pages.

    Students interested in communicating with others can participate in chats or post messages at the message board. The site includes texts of the Gettysburg Address and the Emancipation Proclamation.

    American Civil War Home Page. General resources, graphic images, letters, diaries, and links to other reference sites. It includes a Teacher's Guide and Resources.

    The site features retellings of American folktales, Native American myths and legends, tall tales, weather folklore and ghost stories from the 50 United States. Mainly drawn from the special collections of the Library of Congress, the site has direct links to photographic, recorded sounds, manuscript and early motion picture collections.

    American Memory Learning Page. Select from among these headings: Events, People, Places, Time, and Topics for relevant resources in teaching social studies. American Presidency Grolier Online. Grolier Online presents an exclusive history of presidents, the presidency, politics and related subjects.

    The site includes encyclopedias, sound bytes, flip cards to trade and presidential quizzes. American Presidential Election Election Results from The site, a Britannica feature, provides election results; biographies of the U.

    Presidents including speeches, writings, and audio recordings; biographies of the Vice Presidents; memorobilia; and Presidential internet links. American Revolution Navigation Tools. The site, from the American History Archive Project, includes a key word search to topics of interest, a subject search tool, a time line with links to relevant resources, a clickable map of American Revolutionary War battles and samples of student projects. American Thanksgiving on the Internet.

    Thanksgiving links for teachers, kids and families. Take a virtual tour, view colonial pictures, complete a word search puzzle, sing a song, read a poem, print out a lesson plan, all around the theme of American Thanksgiving. American Treasures of the Library of Congress. This site categorizes as "treasures" some of the more than million items in the Library of Congress. These include Thomas Jefferson's handwritten draft of the Declaration of Independence, Jelly Roll Morton's early compositions, Maya Lin's original drawing for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, the earliest known baseball cards, and the first motion picture deposited for copyright.

    The site focuses on the "old West" and includes information on cowboys, Native Americans, pioneers and pioneer towns, explorers and more. The Library of Congress presents this site which includes these topics: Pictures of ancient Egyptian rulers in mummified form along with brief biographies. A meta index of links to all kinds of sites dealing with the ancient world.

    The articles, photographs, virtual tours and primary source materials found at this site offer the teacher rich resources to teach the contributions of the peoples of Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to world history. The Richest Man in the World. The site includes information about the life and times of Anne Frank.

    Anthropology on the Internet for K The Smithsonian Institution has prepared an annotated listing of hot links to selected sites with information about the field of anthropology for teachers and young people. The sites are grouped under 11 different sections including careers. Architecture Through the Ages. Middle school students can learn about the building and sometimes the culture of a half dozen early civilizations including Egyptian, Greek, and Aztec.

    Historic documents from 18th century America which include original newspapers, maps and writings. The Landscape of Asian America. Appropriate for senior high school students, this is a source for the historical, political, social, economic, and cultural elements and issues that make up today's diverse Asian American community.

    Atlapedia Online provides teachers and students in elementary and secondary schools with full color physical and political maps as well as key facts and statistics on countries of the world. Included are data for geography, climate, people, religion, language, history, and economy. Books which have been objects of censorship or censorship attempts ranging from Ulysses to Little Red Riding Hood. Exploring Questions of Identity. An educational site about this famous battle and how Native Americans and settlers expressed the event through their art.

    It includes The Battle of Little Big Horn, painted by the Lakota warrior Kicking Bearresource links, and discussion questions for elementary, middle school and high school students. Beginner's Guide to the Balkans.

    The site has an interactive map, an event timeline, biographies of major players in the crisis, discussion about the issues of peace and genocide, public response on the subject, and answers to users questions. Biography Over 20, of the greatest names, past and present, at your fingertips. Click on a letter, or enter a name to discover who they were, what they did, and why.

    Gale Research, publisher of many library reference resources, provides this site in celebration of Black History Month. It features a biography section, a timeline, daily quizzes, and educational activities. Our History, Our People.

    Developed by Canada's Digital Collections, and suitable for high school level students, the site tells the story of a group of freed and escaped slaves, the black loyalists, who fought for England in the American Revolution. The major areas which make up the site are: Hundreds of links to African-American history and culture. California Council for the Social Studies. Information and links to other social studies sites of interest to teachers. Includes information and pictures gathered by fourth graders on a bicycle trip to the California Missions.

    Celebrating Women's History Month. Gale Research celebrates women's history with this section of pages of valuable information, including biographies of leading women throughout history, hyperlinks to other WWW sites focusing on women, a women's history quiz, a timeline of key events, and six student activities. Suitable for grades Center for Civic Education.

    The site provides links to a variety of relevant resources including curriculum materials and sample lesson plans. The site includes sound clips, pictures, documents and videos of the Mexican-American labor leader.

    Child Labor in America Hine depicting child labor in a variety of contexts including the mill, newsies, miners, the factory, seafood workers, fruit pickers, and others. The site contains useful information about China's culture and history suitable for students in grades Also featured are a cooking area and a Kids Only section. Your class can look for a China Penpal - under "Interactive" on the home page.

    Includes a calendar of events, links to curriculum projects, and historic photographs. Jay D'Ambrosio, middle school teacher, has produced stories based on actual people, places, and events of the ancient past. These stories are designed to be read by the teacher to the entire classroom and allow students to make choices and use their imaginations in an interactive way in order to experience life in ancient times.

    Sample stories are provided at the site accompanied by information on how to order the full series. History timelines from BC, to Many events from the timelines are hyperlinked. All kinds of data about countries in the world. Information about every country and territory in the world. Includes a searchable Index of Information you can use by entering a keyword.

    Civil War Home Page. The site includes letters and diaries, battles, a photo gallery, people, reenacting associations, and collectables. The site contains1, selected civil war photographs from the Library of Congress collection. Most of the images were made under the supervision of Mathew B.

    Brady, and include scenes of military personnel, preparations for battle, and battle after-effects. Civil War Poetry and Music. Features poems and songs written during and after the war. Links to other civil war sites are provided. The site, developed by Keith A. Pickering, examines the history, navigation, and landfall of Christopher Columbus. It also contains a timeline, details about the four voyages, a bibliography, and links to other relevant resources.

    The Constitutional Rights Foundation CRF is a non-profit, non-partisan, community-based organization dedicated to educating America's young people about the importance of civic participation in a democratic society.

    They provide technical assistance and training to teachers, coordinate civic participation projects in schools and communities, organize student conferences and competitions, develop publications, and present students with Web Lessons.

    Includes an American Historical Atlas and links to map collections online. Cybrary of the Holocaust. A place where you can share in the teaching and learning of the Holocaust.

    Journey through the Holocaust via an interactive map, take a virtual tour of Auschwitz, read diaries and interviews as background to teaching about this tragic historical event. Himalayas, Where Earth Meets Sky. The site provides middle and high school students with an enormous amount of information about the Himalayas. More than photographs, audio files, and java applets enhance the textual information presented.

    The Digital Classroom provides materials from the National Archives and methods for teaching with primary sources. Includes activities and publications. This site, suitable for senior high school students, features links to information on discoverers and explorers, from prehistoric man through modern day.

    Dismuke's Virtual Talking Machine Dismuke's Virtual Talking Machin, for secondary level students, presents the recordings of the turn of the century and the 's and 30's transcribed into streaming Real Audio from the original 78 rpm discs. They can download some of the Real Audio files on the site to their hard drive so that they can listen to them again without being connected to the Internet.

    Seuss Went to War: A Catalog of Political Cartoons by Dr. Middle and high school students can see World War II through these cartoons. Topics include politics, battles, and life in the U. Over 1, pages of material intended to Eradicate Conflict by increasing cultural awareness. The site features anthems, flags, maps, and the nations of the world.

    A collection of the best education sites on the Web. An annotated list of Internet sites with K educational standards and curriculum frameworks documents. The listings are by social studies organization and by state. EducStock Stock Market Educator. Edustock is an educational web page designed to teach young and old alike, what the stock market is, and how it can work for them.

    It includes tutorials on the stock market and how to pick good stocks. It also provides information on a select group of companies to help you start your research into what stock is going to make your fortune.

    Last of all, it provides the only free realtime Stock market simulation on the World Wide Web. At this site, Torstar Eleectronic Publishing Ltd.

    Ellis Island's Wall of Honor. Ellis Island served as a gateway to America for more than 12 million immigrants before it was closed in You can search to see if your family name is inscribed on the American Immigrant Wall of Honor. Exploring Ancient World Cultures. The cultures explored are: Presented by Ibis Communications, EyeWitness recounts history through the words of those who lived it.

    It uses diaries, interviews, newspaper reports and other first-hand sources to illuminate some of history's great and some of its more mundane events. It explores art, music, cinema, prose, and poetry and also contains a reference section that includes a glossary, bibliography, lesson plans, and the Cyrillic alphabet FactFinder Kids' Corner. Census Bureau, is a site in which elementary and middle school students can learn about the U. Census, get facts about their state, and have fun with quiz questions.

    Federal Resources for Educational Excellence. Hundreds of teaching and learning resources from more than 30 federal agencies. Search the resources or see them listed by subject including Social Studies. Fifty States of the U. Their Capital Cities and Information Links. Ray Weber has provided teachers and students with a resource for finding facts about the fifty states which make up the United States. States are listed in alphabetical order.

    Fifty Years from Trinity. Created by the Seattle Times, the site examines the impact of the atomic age fifty years after the invention of nuclear weapons. It includes the full text of the original page newspaper section, additional unpublished supplementary materials, photographs, sounds, a study guide, interactive activities and links to relevant Internet resources.

    The site provides short descriptions of more than 30 Native American tribes, which in turn link to a detailed essay on each. Exploring An Ancient Market Place. The site, prepared for Think Quest by three students from the Netherlands, includes these topics: Suitable for middle and high school levels.

    Founding Fathers Info Guide. Secondary school teachers and students will find an online version of the complete Federalist Papers at this site, along with links to such documents as the U. Bill of Rights and Constitution. Also included are photo galleries, a history of the American flag, quotations from the founding fathers, and lists of suggested books for further study.

    The site provides an in-depth analysis of the Cuban Missile Crisis suitable for senior high school students. Students can elect to go to the "Crisis Center" for a short summary of the events, the "Briefing Room" to hear an audio telling of the crisis, the "Recon Room" for background information on the major figures in the crisis, and the "Debriefing Room" to take a quiz on the information at the site. Friends and Flags is a multi-cultural learning project that combines learning across the curriculum, technology and the humanitarian concept of cultural understanding.

    The project is geared to students from all countries in grades From Jesus to Christ: The site is a complement to the April,PBS television series which contains a wealth of information about the contemporary world of Jesus.

    Social Norms (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

    Included are interviews with religious and historical scholars, maps, a chronology, a primary source collection and audio segments. Contains links to original sources or articles prepared by a number of contributors. Read the text sequentially, or just go off on your own. Teachers and students can visit any culture in the world from the "International Links" area in the site's main page. Additional features are a quiz entitled "How culturally aware are you?

    Reports from Peace Corps volunteers in the field will be added soon. Geography World, created by Brad Bowerman, has links to a variety of topics including maps, games and quizzes that teachers could easily incorporate into an interactive lesson plan.

    Poems, prose, paintings, and a free image of our first president for kids to color. Students can write three words that they think describe George Washington, submit them, and see what others wrote. Geo Teacher is designed to be a research tool and to provide geography links and other resources for high school students, parents, and teachers. It was designed by R. Williams of the Newport News Va.

    Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History offers high school teachers and students a rich variety of resources. These include primary sources on slavery, Mexican American and Native American history, an online textbook providing an interactive, multimedia history of the United States from the Revolution to the present, audio and visual materials, and exhibitions. Global Access to Educational Sources G.

    This site is an online library for Middle School Students. It contains resource lists which are intended to be of value to those who do not have the time to do a full search. Middle and secondary students and teachers interested in inventions and inventors will find a wealth of information here.

    The History Channel features the great speeches that changed the world. Every day, The History Channel Time Machine takes you to a different turning point in history -- and lets you listen in. These speeches have been drawn from the most famous broadcasts and recordings of the Twentieth Century.

    To hear these sounds from the past, you'll need the RealAudio Plug-in. The site includes the story of World War II, biographies and articles, air combat films to download, photographs, a World War II history test, and links to other resources.

    Includes a Gulf War chronology, tapes and transcripts, weapons and technology information, maps, an oral history and war stories. An archive of sound clips from the past. Middle and high school students can hear some of the voices of American History including Franklin D.

    Teachers and students can search and browse the offerings of the site which is presented by the National Endowment for the Humanities in partnership with Michigan State University.