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Diamond Realm Mandalabased on the tantric Vajrasekhara Sutraand symbolizing the final realization of Vairocana Buddha in Shingon. Earlier Mahayana sutras already contained some elements which are emphasized in the Tantras, such as mantras and dharani. The dating of the tantras is "a difficult, indeed an impossible task" according to David Snellgrove. Later monastic Vajrayana Buddhists reinterpreted and internalized these radically transgressive and taboo practices as metaphors and visualization exercises.
Later tantras such as the Hevajra Tantra and the Chakrasamvara are classed as "Yogini tantras" and represent the final form of development of Indian Buddhist tantras in the ninth and tenth centuries. Davidson, the rise of Tantric Buddhism was a response to the feudal structure of Indian society in the early medieval period ca. The question of the origins of early Vajrayana has been taken up by various scholars.
Sanderson's comparison of them shows similarity in "ritual procedures, style of observance, deities, mantras, mandalas, ritual dress, Kapalika accoutrements, specialized terminology, secret gestures, and secret jargons.
There is even direct borrowing of passages from Saiva texts. Davidson meanwhile, argues that Sanderson's claims for direct influence from Shaiva Vidyapitha texts are problematic because "the chronology of the Vidyapitha tantras is by no means so well established"  and that "the available evidence suggests that received Saiva tantras come into evidence sometime in the ninth to tenth centuries with their affirmation by scholars like Abhinavagupta c.
The Buddhist-Kapalika connection is more complex than a simple process of religious imitation and textual appropriation.
There can be no question that the Buddhist tantras were heavily influenced by Kapalika and other Saiva movements, but the influence was apparently mutual.
Perhaps a more nuanced model would be that the various lines of transmission were locally flourishing and that in some areas they interacted, while in others they maintained concerted hostility. Thus the influence was both sustained and reciprocal, even in those places where Buddhist and Kapalika siddhas were in extreme antagonism.
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The importance of the theory of emptiness is central to the Tantric view and practice. Buddhist emptiness sees the world as being fluid, without an ontological foundation or inherent existence but ultimately a fabric of constructions.
Because of this, tantric practice such as self-visualization as the deity is seen as being no less real than everyday reality, but a process of transforming reality itself, including the practitioner's identity as the deity. As Stephan Beyer notes, "In a universe where all events dissolve ontologically into Emptiness, the touching of Emptiness in the ritual is the re-creation of the world in actuality".
Negative mental factors such as desire, hatred, greed, pride are not rejected as in non Tantric Buddhism, but are used as part of the path.
As noted by French Indologist Madeleine Biardeau, tantric doctrine is "an attempt to place kama, desire, in every meaning of the word, in the service of liberation. Those things by which evil men are bound, others turn into means and gain thereby release from the bonds of existence.
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By passion the world is bound, by passion too it is released, but by heretical Buddhists this practice of reversals is not known. All individuals are seen as containing the seed of enlightenment within, which is covered over by defilements.
Douglas Duckworth notes that Vajrayana sees Buddhahood not as something outside or an event in the future, but as immanently present. Likewise in TibetSakya Pandita -as well as later thinkers like Longchenpa — expanded on these philosophies in their Tantric commentaries and treatises.
The status of the tantric view continued to be debated in medieval Tibet.
Tibetan Buddhist Rongzom Chokyi Zangpo — held that the views of sutra such as Madhyamaka were inferior to that of tantra, as Koppl notes: By now we have seen that Rongzom regards the views of the Sutrayana as inferior to those of Mantra, and he underscores his commitment to the purity of all phenomena by criticizing the Madhyamaka objectification of the authentic relative truth.
Theological similarities[ edit ] Scholarly efforts to compare Hinduism and Judaism were popular during the Enlightenment erain the process of arguing the deistic worldview.
Adherents of both religions, however, are found across the world. They cite the similarities between Brahmins and Jews who viewed themselves as "God's chosen people.
In one chapter he writes: Exactly the same name as given him by the Hindus! The laws of M'nu are preserved by the Hindus: According to the Upanishadsthe Mahabharataand some PuranasNarayana is the supreme deity. In Hinduism, gods are considered to have a similar status to another when distinct,  but may also be seen as "aspects or manifestations of a single, transcendent god",  or an "impersonal absolute".
Jackson adds that both Jewish and Hindu law evidence a great sensitivity to the interplay of local custom and authoritative law. He says that in both religions, the writing down of a collection of norms did not necessarily mean that all or even most norms were intended to be enforced, and that the laws connected with royal authority were not necessarily statutory. Wendy Doniger states that Hinduism and Judaism are alike in their tendency toward orthopraxy rather than orthodoxy.
Bhavishya Purana is regarded by a number of scholars to have predicted Judaism's prophet Mosesand similar parallels are found in Vedas.