The supposition that the author was one and the same with the beloved disciple is often advanced as a means of insuring that the evangelist did witness Jesus' ministry.
Two other passages are advanced as evidence of the same - But both falter under close scrutiny. Neither of these passages, therefore, persuades many Johannine scholars that the author claims eyewitness status.
There is a case to be made that John, the son of Zebedee, had already died long before the Gospel of John came to be written. It is worth noting for its own sake, even though the "beloved disciple" need not be identified with John, the son of Zebedee. In his ninth century Chronicle in the codex Coislinianus, George Hartolos says, "[John] was worth of martyrdom.
Papias in the second book says that John the divine and James his brother were killed by Jews.
Morton Enslin observes Christian Beginnings, pp. None the less, this Marcan passage itself affords solid ground. No reasonable interpretation of these words can deny the high probability that by the time these words were written [ca.
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If the author of the Gospel of John were an eyewitness, presumably the author would have known that Jesus and his compatriots were permitted to enter the synagogues. But at one several points it is stated that those who acknowledged Jesus as the Christ during the life of Jesus were put out of the synagogue.
This anachronism is inconceivable as the product of an eyewitness. Kysar states that most scholars today see the historical setting of the Gospel of John in the expulsion of the community from the synagogue op.
The word aposynagogos is found three times in the gospel 9: The high claims made for Jesus and the response to them 5: Hence, these scholars would date John after Those inclined to see the expulsion more in terms of an informal action on the part of a local synagogue are free to propose an earlier date.
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Most agree that it does, although there have been persistent attempts to argue otherwise. The reasons for positing a post date include the view of the Temple implicit in 2: Most would argue that the passage attempts to present Christ as the replacement of the Temple that has been destroyed. The retort that there is also no mention of scribes misses the mark, as the Pharisees represented the scribal tradition, and the Pharisees are mentioned.
The terminus a quo might also be set by dependence upon the Gospel of Mark, if it were certain that the Gospel of John is dependent upon Mark.
The matter is debated in contemporary scholarship, but Kysar says that the theory of Johannine independence commands a "slim majority" of contemporary critics. For a discussion of this issue, D.
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